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CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि

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CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि

संधि – संधि का शाब्दिक अर्थ है-मेल। अर्थात् जब दो निकटवर्ती ध्वनियाँ आपस में मिल जाती हैं और एक नया रूप धारण करती हैं तब उसे संधि कहते हैं; जैसे-सूर्य+ उदय-सूर्योदय।
यहाँ ‘सूर्य’ की अंतिम ध्वनि ‘अ’ तथा ‘उदय’ की प्रारंभिक ध्वनि ‘उ’ पास-पास आकर एक नया रूप ‘ओ’ बना रही हैं। इस परिवर्तन या विकार का नाम संधि है।

कुछ और उदाहरण –
रेखा + अंकित = रेखांकित
राका + ईश = राकेश
लोक + उक्ति = लोकोक्ति
पा + अन = पवन
अति + अंत = अत्यंत

संधि के भेद – संधि के तीन भेद हैं –

  1. स्वर संधि
  2. व्यंजन संधि
  3. विसर्ग संधि।

1. स्वर संधि- दो स्वरों के परस्पर मेल से जो परिवर्तन होता है, उसे स्वर संधि कहते हैं; जैसे –

शिव+आलय=शिवालय
महा+आत्मा महात्मा
नर-ईश-नरेश
एक-एक एकैक

स्वर संधि के भेद –
स्वर संधि के पाँच भेद हैं –

(क) दीर्घ संधि
(ख) गुण संधि
(ग) वृद्धि संधि
(घ) यण संधि
(ङ) अयादि संधि।

(क) दीर्घ संधि-जब ह्रस्व या दीर्घ अ, इ, उ से परे क्रमशः ह्रस्व या दीर्घ अ, इ, उ आए तो दोनों मिलकर आ, ई, ऊ
हो जाते हैं, जैसे- शास्त्र + अर्थ = शास्त्रार्थ, धर्म + अर्थ = धर्मार्थ
(a)
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 1
(b)
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 2
(c)
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 3

(ख) गुण संधि-यदि अ और आ के आगे इ, ई, उ, क, ऋ हो तो दोनों के मिलने से ए, ओ, औ तथा अर हो जाता है;
जैसे –
(a)
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 4
(b)
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 5
(c)
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 6

(ग) वृद्धि संधि-यदि ह्रस्व अ या दीर्घ आ के बाद ए या ऐ हो तो दोनों मिलकर ऐ, ओ या औ हो जाता है; जैसे –
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 7

(घ) यण संधि-यदि इ, ई,उ, ऊ और ऋ के बाद भिन्न स्वर आए तो इ, ई का अय, उ, ऊ का व तथा ऋ का ‘र’ हो जाता है; जैसे –
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 8

(ङ) अयादि संधि-जब ए/ऐ, ओ/औ के बाद कोई भिन्न स्वर आता है तो इनके स्थान पर ए-अय, ऐ-आय, ओ-अव तथा औ-आव में बदल जाता है; जैसे –
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 9
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 10

2. व्यंजन संधि – व्यंजन संधि का स्वर या व्यंजन से मेल होने पर जो परिवर्तन होता है, उसे व्यंजन संधि कहते हैं।
उदाहरण –
दिक् + अंबर = दिगंबर
वाक् + ईश = वागीश
षट् + आनन = षडानन
जगत् + अंबा = जगदंबा
वाक् + जाल = वाग्जाल
दिग् + दर्शन = दिग्दर्शन
तत् + रूप = तद्रूप
तत् + आकार = तदाकार
उत् + घाटन = उद्घाटन
सत् + उपयोग = सदुपयोग
सम् + भावना = संभावना
सम् + ध्या = संध्या
सम् + सार = संसार
उत् + गम = उद्गम
सम् + देह = संदेह
सम + तोष = संतोष
सम् + योग = संयोग
सम् + मति = सम्मति

जगत् + नाथ = जगन्नाथ
सत् + मार्ग = सन्मार्ग
उत् + माद = उन्माद
उत् + ज्वल = उज्ज्वल
उत् + नति = उन्नति
उत् + नयन = उन्नयन
उत् + चारण = उच्चारण
उत् + लास = उल्लास
उत् + लेख = उल्लेख
उत् + धरण = उद्धरण
वि + षाद = विषाद
प्र + नाम = प्रणाम

उत् + हार = उद्धार
तरु + छाया = तरुच्छाया
राम + अयन = रामायण
परि + नाम = परिणाम
सम् + चार = संचार

3.  विसर्ग संधि-विसर्ग (:) के बाद स्वर या व्यंजन आने पर उत्पन्न विकार को विसर्ग संधि कहते हैं; जैसे –

अधः + मुखी = अधोमुखी
अधः + गति = अधोगति
मनः + रथ = मनोरथ
मनः + हर = मनोहर
दुः + बल = दुर्बल
निः + उत्साह = निरुत्साह
दुः + कर = दुष्कर

परिः + छेद = परिच्छेद
हरिः + चंद्र = हरिश्चंद्र
निः + पक्ष = निष्पक्ष
नमः + ते = नमस्ते
निः + तेज = निष्तेज
निः + रव = नीरव

मनः + बल = मनोबल
तपः + वन = तपोवन
मनः + बल = मनोबल
निः + आशा = निराशा
निः + चल = निश्चल
दुः + कर्म = दुष्कर्म

निः + दय = निर्दय
निः + प्राण = निष्प्राण
नमः + कार = नमस्कार
निः + संग = निस्संग
निः + रोग = निहरोग
दु: + जन = दुर्जन

विभिन्न पाठों से लिए गए संधि युक्त शब्द और उनके विच्छेद

धूल
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 13
एवरेस्ट-मेरी शिखर यात्रा
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 14
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 15

तुम कब जाओगे, अतिथि
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 16
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 17

वैज्ञानिक चेतना के वाहक चंद्रशेखर वेंकट रामन्
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 18
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 19
कीचड़ का काव्य
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 20
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 21
धर्म की आड़
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 22
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 23
शुक्रतारे के समान
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 24
CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि - 25

विभिन्न परीक्षाओं में पूछे गए संधि-विच्छेद संबंधी प्रश्न प्रश्न

प्रश्नः 1.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों में संधि कीजिए –

  1. अनु + एषण , अभि + उदय
  2. दु: + उपयोग , रमा + इंद्र
  3. महा + उदधि , दिन + अंत
  4. अति + आचार , प्रति + अंग
  5. पीत + अंबर , जन्म + उत्सव
  6. चरम + उत्कर्ष , महा + ईश्वर
  7. कारा + आवास , काल + अंतर
  8. अरुण + उदय , द्राक्ष + आसव
  9. सर्व + अधिक , नील + ईष
  10. परम + ईश्वर , अल्प + उक्ति
  11. प्राण + आयाम , अति + आचार
  12. व्यंग्य + आत्मक , पंच + आयत
  13. वन + उत्सव , एक + एक
  14. अधि + ईश्वर , राका + ईश
  15. पंच + अरिष्ट , उत् + चारण

उत्तरः

  1. अन्वेषण, अभ्युदय
  2. दुरुपयोग, रामेंद्र
  3. महोदधि , दिनांत
  4. अत्याचार , प्रत्यंग
  5. पीतांबर , जन्मोत्सव
  6. चरमोत्कर्ष , महैश्वर
  7. कारावास , कातांतर
  8. अरुणोदय , प्राक्षासव
  9. सर्वाधिक , नीलेश
  10. परमेश्वर , अल्पोक्ति
  11. प्राणायाम , अत्याचार
  12. व्यंग्यात्मक , पंचायत
  13. वनोत्सव , एकैक
  14. अधीश्वर , राकेश
  15. पंचारिष्ट , उच्चारण

प्रश्नः 2.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों में संधि-विच्छेद कीजिए –

  1. परमेश्वर , इत्यादि
  2. शिवालय , गिरींद्र
  3. विद्यार्थी , अनाथालय
  4. यद्यपि , अत्याचार
  5. वनौषधि , तल्लीन
  6. पूर्वोक्ति , अन्यार्थ
  7. परमौज , गजेंद्र
  8. ज्ञानोदय , प्रत्यंग
  9. आशीर्वाद , अभीष्ट
  10. सूक्ति , सिंधूमि
  11. वधूर्मि , संचित
  12. हतोत्साहित , वाचनालय
  13. अस्ताचल , लोकैक्य
  14. अखिलेश , धर्मावलंबी
  15. हर्षातिरेक , वक्रोक्ति

उत्तरः

  1. पर + ईश्वर , इति + आदि
  2. शिव + आलय , गिरि + इंद्र
  3. विद्या + अर्थी , अनाथ + आलय
  4. यदि + अपि , अति + आचार
  5. वन + ओषधि , तत् + लीन
  6. पूर्व + उक्ति , अन्य + अर्थ
  7. परम + ओज , गज + इंद्र
  8. ज्ञान + उदय , प्रति + अंग
  9. आशी: + वाद , अभि + इष्ट
  10. सु + उक्ति , सिंधु + ऊर्मि
  11. वधू + ऊर्मि , सम् + चित
  12. ह् + उत्साहित , लोक + एक्य
  13. अखिल + ईश , धर्म + अवलंबी
  14. हर्ष + अतिरेक , वक्र + उक्ति
  15. ज्ञान + उदय , प्रति + अंग

अभ्यास प्रश्न

प्रश्नः 1.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों में संधि कीजिए

  1. यदि + अपि = …………………
  2. मत + ऐक्य = …………………
  3. स्व + इच्छा = …………………
  4. महा + औषध = …………………
  5. वार्षिक + उत्सव = …………………
  6. वन + औषधि = …………………
  7. महा + उदय = …………………
  8. उदय + अंचल = …………………
  9. शब्द + अर्थ =. ………………..
  10. मंत्र + आलय =…………………
  11. नर + इंद्र = ………………………
  12. वार्ता + आलाप = ………………………
  13. पूर्व + उत्तर = ………………………
  14. युग + अंत = ………………………
  15. उत् + मेष = ………………………
  16. सदा + एव = ………………………
  17. पूर्ण + इंदु = ………………………
  18. एक + एक = ………………………
  19. अनाथ + आलय = ………………………
  20. वृक्ष + आरोपण = ………………………
  21. परम् + औषधि = ………………………
  22. स्व + अर्थ = ………………………
  23. सु + आगत = ………………………
  24. पद + उन्नति = ………………………
  25. अति + उत्तम = ………………………
  26. चंद्र + उदय = ………………………
  27. इति + आदि = ………………………
  28. चरण + अमृत = ………………………
  29. लघु + उत्तर = ………………………
  30. आ + छादन = ………………………
  31. प्रति + एक = ………………………
  32. लंका + ईश = ………………………
  33. रेखा + अंकित = ………………………
  34. पुष्प + अंजलि = ………………………
  35. महा + ऋषि = ………………………
  36. उप + आसना = ………………………
  37. शिव + आलय = ………………………
  38. प्रति + उत्तर = ………………………
  39. धन + एषण = ………………………
  40. सूर्य + उदय = ………………………
  41. महा + उदधि = ………………………
  42. तथा + अपि = ………………………
  43. ग्राम + उत्थान = ………………………
  44. नव + ऊढ़ा = ………………………
  45. कवि + इंद्र = ………………………
  46. लोक + आचार = ………………………
  47. अरुण + अचल = ………………………
  48. कर्म + इंद्रिय = ………………………
  49. अति + आवश्यक = ………………………
  50. महा + उत्सव = ………………………
  51. गृह + उपयोगी = ………………………
  52. प्रतीक्षा + आलय = ………………………
  53. प्रति + अक्षर = ………………………
  54. सत्य + अन्वेषी = ………………………
  55. अधिक + अधिक = ………………………
  56. शची + इंद्र = ………………………
  57. तथा + एव = ………………………
  58. अधि + ईश्वर = ………………………
  59. वाक + दत्ता = ………………………
  60. स्व + छंद = ………………………

उत्तरः

  1. यद्यपि
  2. मतैक्य
  3. स्वेच्छा
  4. महौषध
  5. वार्षिकोत्सव
  6. वनौषधि
  7. महोदय
  8. उदयांचल
  9. शब्दार्थ
  10. मंत्रालय
  11. नरेंद्र
  12. वार्तालाप
  13. पूर्वोत्तर
  14. युगांत
  15. उन्मेष
  16. सदैव
  17. पूर्णेदु
  18. एकैक
  19. अनाथालय
  20. वृक्षारोपण
  21. परमौषधि
  22. स्वार्थ
  23. स्वागत
  24. पदोन्नति
  25. अत्युत्तम
  26. चंद्रोदय
  27. इत्यादि
  28. चरणामृत
  29. लघुत्तर
  30. आच्छादन
  31. प्रत्येक
  32. लंकेश
  33. रेखांकित
  34. पुष्पांजलि
  35. महर्षि
  36. उपासना
  37. शिवालय
  38. प्रत्युत्तर
  39. धनैषणा
  40. सूर्योदय
  41. महोदधि
  42. तथापि
  43. ग्रामोत्थान
  44. नवोढ़ा
  45. कवींद्र
  46. लोकाचार
  47. अरुणाचल
  48. कर्मेंद्रिय
  49. अत्यावश्यक
  50. महोत्सव
  51. गृहोपयोगी
  52. प्रतीक्षालय
  53. प्रत्यक्षर
  54. सत्यान्वेषी
  55. अधिकाधिक
  56. शचींद्र
  57. तथैव
  58. अधीश्वर
  59. वागदत्ता
  60. स्वच्छंद

प्रश्नः 2.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों में संधि-विच्छेद कीजिए –

  1. लोकेंद्र = …………. + …………..
  2. यथार्थ = …………. + …………..
  3. अधरौष्ठ = …………. + …………..
  4. हिमांशु = …………. + …………..
  5. सोमेंद्र = …………. + …………..
  6. नवोदित = ………….. + …………..
  7. विस्मयादि = …………. + …………..
  8. नवोदय = …………. + …………..
  9. सर्वोदय = …………. + …………..
  10. लघूत्तर = …………. + …………..
  11. स्वल्प = …………. + …………..
  12. राजेश्वर = …………. + …………..
  13. धनादेश = …………. + …………..
  14. सदुपाय = …………. + …………..
  15. अध्यादेश = …………. + …………..
  16. परमाणु = …………. + …………..
  17. लोकोपचार = …………. + …………..
  18. दिग्गज = …………. + …………..
  19. कुशासन = …………. + …………..
  20. अत्यंत = …………. + …………..
  21. रत्नाकर = …………. + …………..
  22. वीरोचित = …………. + …………..
  23. वाचनालय = …………. + …………..
  24. सदैव = …………. + …………..
  25. चरणामृत = …………. + …………..
  26. शीतोदक = …………. + …………..
  27. महाशय = …………. + …………..
  28. कवीश्वर = …………. + …………..
  29. परिच्छेद = …………. + …………..
  30. देवेंद्र = …………. + …………..
  31. महेंद्र = …………. + …………..
  32. कृतार्थ = …………. + …………..
  33. दीक्षांत = …………. + …………..
  34. वनौषधि = …………. + ……………
  35. सागरोमि = …………. + …………..
  36. प्रत्येक = …………. + …………..
  37. कृपाकांक्षी = …………. + …………..
  38. पूर्णंदु = …………. + …………..
  39. पर्यावरण = …………. + …………..
  40. उद्गम = …………. + …………..
  41. नीरस = …………. + …………..
  42. निर्धन = …………. + …………..
  43. सन्मार्ग = …………. + …………..
  44. उड्डयन = …………. + …………..
  45. तपोबल = …………. + …………..
  46. विश्रमालय = …………. + …………..
  47. नदीश = …………. + …………..
  48. दुश्शासन = …………. + …………..
  49. भाग्योदय = …………. + …………..
  50. मतैक्य = …………. + …………..
  51. वूधत्सव = …………. + …………..
  52. देवालय = …………. + …………..
  53. यद्यपि = …………. + …………..
  54. सज्जन = …………. + …………..
  55. भाग्योदय = …………. + …………..
  56. परोपकार = …………. + …………….
  57. एकैक = …………. + …………..
  58. स्वेच्छा = …………. + …………..

उत्तरः

  1. लोक + इंद्र
  2. यथा + अर्थ
  3. अधर + ओष्ट
  4. हिम + अंशु
  5. सोम + इंद्र
  6. नव + उदित
  7. विस्मय + आदि
  8. नव + उदय
  9. सर्व + उदय
  10. लघु + उत्तर
  11. सुः + अल्प
  12. राज + ईश्वर
  13. धन + आदेश
  14. सद + उपाय
  15. अधि + आदेश
  16. परम + अणु
  17. लोक + उपचार
  18. दिक् + गज
  19. कुश + आसन
  20. अति + अंत
  21. रत्न + आकर
  22. वीर + उचित
  23. वाचन + आलय
  24. सदा + एव
  25. चरण + अमृत
  26. शीत + उदक
  27. महा + आशय
  28. कवि + ईश्वर
  29. परि + छेद
  30. देव + इंद्र
  31. महा + इंद्र
  32. कृत + अर्थ
  33. दीक्षा + अंत
  34. वन + औषधि
  35. सागर + ऊर्मि
  36. प्रति + एक
  37. कृपा + आकांक्षी
  38. पूर्ण + इंदु
  39. परि + आवरण
  40. उत् + गम
  41. निः + रस
  42. निः + धन
  43. सत् + मार्ग
  44. उत् + डयन
  45. तपः + बल
  46. विश्राम + आलय
  47. नदी + ईश
  48. दुः + शासन
  49. भाग्य + उदय
  50. मत + एक्य
  51. वधू + उत्सव
  52. देव + आलय
  53. यदि + अपि
  54. सत् + जन
  55. भाग्य + उदय
  56. पर + उपकार
  57. एक + एक
  58. स्व + इच्छा

प्रश्नः 3.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों की संधि करते हुए, संधि का नाम भी लिखिए

  1. कपि + ईश = …………. , …………..
  2. अति + अधिक = …………. , …………..
  3. नै + इका = …………. , …………..
  4. षट् + आनन = …………. , …………..
  5. पुरः + कार = …………. , …………..
  6. वाक् + ईश = …………. , …………..
  7. तथा + एव = …………. , …………..
  8. उत् + घाटन = …………. , …………..
  9. पौ + अक = …………. , …………..
  10. सत् + जन = …………. , …………..
  11. तपः + वन = …………. , …………..
  12. नै + अक = …………. , …………..
  13. मनः + गति = …………. , …………..
  14. उत् + ज्वल = …………. , …………..
  15. भाग्य + उदय = …………. , …………..
  16. पौ + अन = …………. , …………..
  17. सरः + ज = …………. , …………..
  18. निः + छल = …………. , …………..
  19. सम् + देह = …………. , …………..
  20. उत् + नयन = …………. , …………..

उत्तरः

  1. कपीश = दीर्घ संधि
  2. अत्यधिक = यण संधि
  3. नायिका = अयादि संधि
  4. षडानन = व्यंजन संधि
  5. पुरस्कार = विसर्ग संधि
  6. वागीश = व्यंजन संधि
  7. तथैव = वृद्धि संधि
  8. उद्घाटन = विसर्ग संधि
  9. पावक = अयादि संधि
  10. सज्जन = व्यंजन संधि
  11. तपोवन = विसर्ग संधि
  12. नायक = अयादि संधि
  13. मनोगति = विसर्ग संधि
  14. उज्ज्वल = व्यंजन संधि
  15. भाग्योदय = गुण संधि
  16. पावन = अयादि संधि
  17. सरोज = विसर्ग संधि
  18. निश्छल = व्यंजन संधि
  19. संदेह = व्यंजन संधि
  20. उन्नयन = व्यंजन संधि

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Hindi

The post CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण संधि appeared first on Learn CBSE.

CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण विराम-चिह्न

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CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण विराम-चिह्न

विराम-चिह्न आवश्यक क्यों?

जब हम अपने मनभावों को किसी के सामने प्रकट करते हैं तो अपनी बातों को समझाने या किसी कथन पर बल देने के लिए बीचबीच में रुकते हैं। लिखित भाषा में भाव स्पष्ट करने या कथन पर बल देने के लिए कुछ निश्चित चिह्नों का प्रयोग किया जाता है। इन चिह्नों को विराम-चिह्न कहते हैं।

परिभाषा- भाषा के लिखित रूप में रुकने के लिए जिन चिह्नों या संकेतों का प्रयोग किया जाता है, उन्हें विराम-चिह्न कहते हैं। विराम-चिह्नों के प्रयोग से –

  1. भावों की अभिव्यक्ति में स्पष्टता आती है।
  2. कथन प्रभावपूर्ण बन जाता है।

विराम-चिहन के प्रकार –
हिंदी भाषा में मुख्य रूप से निम्नांकित विराम-चिह्नों का प्रयोग किया जाता है –

विराम-चिहन का नाम और चिह्न

  1. पूर्ण विराम (Full stop) ।
  2. अर्ध विराम (Semi-colon) ;
  3. अल्प विराम (Comma) ,
  4. प्रश्नवाचक चिह्न (Question mark) ?
  5. विस्मयवाचक चिह्न (Exclamation mark) !
  6. योजक या विभाजक (Hyphen) –
  7. निर्देशक (Dash) –
  8. उद्धरण चिह्न (Inverted comma) ‘ ’,“ ”
  9. विवरण चिह्न (Sign of following) :-
  10. कोष्ठक (Bracket) ( )
  11. हंस पद (Sign of leftout) ,
  12. लाघव चिह्न (Sign of abbreviation) ०

1. पूर्ण विराम (।) – इस चिह्न का प्रयोग प्रश्नवाचक और विस्मयवाचक वाक्यों को छोड़कर प्रायः सभी प्रकार के वाक्यों के अंत में किया जाता है; जैसे –

  • अध्यापक छात्रों को पढ़ाते हैं।
  • माली पौधों की देखभाल करता है।
  • हमें अपने आस-पास हरा-भरा बनाए रखना चाहिए।
  • कभी-कभी अप्रत्यक्ष प्रश्न के अंत में भी पूर्ण विराम लगाया जाता है; जैसे –
  • अच्छा अब बताओ कि तुम्हें क्या चाहिए।
  • कुछ देर पहले यहाँ कौन आया था।

2. अर्ध विराम (;)- जब पूर्ण विराम से कम समय के लिए रुकते हैं, तब इस चिह्न का प्रयोग किया जाता है; जैसे –

  • वह घर आया; थोड़ी देर बाद चला गया।
  • जो यहाँ फूल-माला चढ़ाते हैं; उनकी मनोकामना पूर्ण होती है।
  • तुम्हारी इन बातों पर कोई विश्वास नहीं करेगा; क्योंकि ये झूठी हैं।
  • यहाँ कई भाषाएँ पढ़ाई जाती हैं; जैसे-अंग्रेज़ी, तमिल, मलयालम आदि।

3. अल्प विराम (,) – वाक्य के मध्य में अर्ध विराम से भी कम समय तक रुकने के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे –

  • राम, मोहन, श्याम और उदय यहाँ आएँगे।
  • हाँ, मैं यह चित्र बना लूँगा।
  • नहीं, तुम अभी अंदर नहीं आ सकते हो।
  • सरकार बदल जाने से, मैं समझता हूँ, कुछ बदलाव होगा।
  • मि. शर्मा एम.ए., बी.एड., पी.एच.डी. हैं।
  • सुभाषचंद्र बोस ने कहा, “तुम मुझे खून दो, मैं तुम्हें आजादी दूंगा।”
  • चलो, चलो जल्दी चलो, ट्रेन आ गई है।
  • हमारा देश 15 अगस्त, 1947 को आजाद हुआ।
  • इस व्यक्ति के लिए लाभ और हानि, यश और अपयश बराबर हैं।
  • सवेरा हुआ, पक्षी बोलने लगे।
  • वह काम, जिसे आपने बताया था, मैंने कर दिया था।
  • यहाँ आओ, सुमन, मेरी बात तो सुनो।
  • पूज्या माता जी, भवदीया आदि।

4. प्रश्नवाचक चिह्न (?) – इस चिह्न का प्रयोग प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों के अंत में, अनिश्चय या संदेह प्रकट करने के लिए संदेह स्थल पर कोष्ठक में किया जाता है; जैसे –

  • सुमन, तुम कब आई?
  • क्या कहा, वह परिश्रमी है?
  • वह क्या पढ़ता है, क्या लिखता है, क्या याद करता है, यह मुझसे क्यों पूछ रहे हो?

5. विस्मयवाचक चिह्न (!) – इस चिह्न का प्रयोग विस्मय (आश्चर्य), हर्ष, घृणा, शोक आदि मनोभावों को व्यक्त करने के लिए इस चिह्न का प्रयोग किया जाता है; जैसे –

  • अरे! बरसात होने लगी।
  • अहा! कितने सुंदर फूल खिले हैं।
  • हाय! चोरों ने सब कुछ लूट लिया।
  • छि:! यहाँ तो कूड़ा फैला है।

शाबाश! तुम्हें ‘ए’ ग्रेड मिला है।

6. योजक या विभाजक चिह्न (-) – इस चिह्न का प्रयोग सामासिक शब्दों, सा, सी, से आदि से पूर्व, शब्द युग्मों, द्वित्व शब्दों, पूर्णांक से कम संख्या भाग बताने के लिए किया जाता है –

  • सुख-दुख, आगमन प्रस्थान, जीवन-मरण, यश-अपयश।
  • हिरनी-सी आँखें, मोती-से अक्षर, फूल-सा बच्चा।
  • उठते-बैठते, सोते जागते, हँसते-हँसते, पढ़ते-पढ़ते।
  • एक-तिहाई, तीन-दसवाँ, एक-चौथाई।

7. निर्देशक चिह्न (-) यह चिह्न योजक-चिह्न से बड़ा होता है। इसका प्रयोग किसी के कहे वाक्यों से पूर्व, कहा, लिखा
आदि क्रियाओं के बाद, संवादों में, किसी शब्द या वाक्यांश की व्याख्या से पूर्व किया जाता है; जैसे –

  • गांधी जी ने कहा-“हम स्वराज लाएँगे।”
  • अध्यापक ने लिखा-पाठ दोहराकर आना।
  • राणा प्रताप-देखो, भामाशाह आ रहे हैं।
  • भामाशाह-राजन, आप मेरी यह दौलत स्वीकार कर लें।
  • इस दुकान पर आपको कई चीजें मिल जाएंगी-चीनी, चावल, दाल, तेल आदि।

8. उद्धरण चिह्न (‘…..’, “…”) – इस चिह्न का प्रयोग किसी कथन को मूल रूप में लिखने, पुस्तक या कथन का मूल अंश उद्धृत करने व्यक्ति, पुस्तक, उपनाम आदि के लिए किया है।

इसके दो भेद हैं

(क) इकहरा उद्धारण चिह्न (……….’)

  • इस कविता के रचयिता रामधारी सिंह ‘दिनकर’ हैं।
  • ‘रामचरित मानस’ तुलसीदास की विश्व प्रसिद्ध कृति है।

(ख) दोहरा उद्धारण चिह्न (“………”)

  • स्व. इंदिरा गांधी ने नारा दिया-‘गरीबी हटाओ।”
  • ग्रेसम का कहना था-“पुराना नोट नए नोट के चलन में बाधक होता है।”

9. विवरण चिह्न (:-) – कुछ सूचना, निर्देश आदि देने के लिए इस चिह्न का प्रयोग किया जाता है; जैसे –

  • कर्म के आधार पर क्रिया के दो भेद होते है:-अकर्मक और सकर्मक।
  • राजा दशरथ के चार पुत्र थे: – राम, लक्ष्मण, भरत और शत्रुघ्न।

10. कोष्ठक ( ) -कोष्ठक में उस अंश को दिया जाता है जो वाक्य का मुख्य अंश होने के बाद भी अलग से दिया जा सकता है; जैसे –

  • राष्ट्रीय त्योहार (स्वतंत्रता दिवस, गणतंत्र दिवस) राष्ट्रीय एकता बढ़ाने में सहायक हैं।
  • यहाँ लेखन सामग्री (रजिस्टर, पेन, इंक आदि) मिल जाएगी।
  • (क) और (ख) दोनों विकल्प सही हैं।

11. हंसपद चिह्न (*)-लिखते समय कुछ अंश छूट जाने पर इस चिह्न को लगाकर उसके ऊपर लिख दिया जाता है; जैसे –

  • यहाँ बस, ट्रक और कार की मरम्मत की जाती है।
  • अप्रैल, मई और जून गरमी के महीने हैं।
  • आप विश्वास कीजिए, यह काम मैंने ही किया है।

12. लाघव चिह्न (०)- इसे संक्षेप सूचक चिह्न भी कहते हैं। किसी बड़े अंश का लघुरूप लिखने के लिए इसका प्रयोग किया जाता है, जैसे –

  • सच्चिदानंद हीरानंद वात्स्यायन अज्ञेय = (स.ही०वा० अज्ञेय)
  • गोस्वामी तुलसीदास = (गो० तुलसीदास), डॉक्टर = (डॉ०)
  • कृपया पन्ना उलटिए= (कृ०प०उ०)

अभ्यास प्रश्न

प्रश्नः
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में उचित विराम-चिह्न का प्रयोग करते हुए दोबारा लिखिए

  1. लोगों ने मिस्टर शर्मा को एम पी चुन लिया
  2. सुभाष चंद्र बोस ने कहा तुम मुझे खून दो मैं तुम्हें आजादी दूंगा
  3. क्या प्रधानाचार्य आज नहीं आए हैं
  4. तुलसी ने रामचरित मानस में लिखा है परहित सरसि धर्म नहिं भाई
  5. तुम कौन हो कहाँ रहते हो क्या करते हो यह सब मैं क्यों पूछू
  6. बूढ़े ने डॉक्टर चड्ढा से कहा इसे एक नज़र देख लीजिए शायद बच जाए
  7. कामायनी कवि जयशंकर प्रसाद की प्रसिद्ध कृति है
  8. उस कवि सम्मेलन में रामधारी सिंह दिनकर, सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी निराला जैसे कई महान कवि आए थे
  9. वसंत ऋतु के त्योहार होली वसंत पंचमी वैसाखी हमें उल्लास से भर जाते हैं
  10. हाय फूल सी कोमल बच्ची हुई राख की थी ढेरी
  11. क्या कहा तुम अनुत्तीर्ण हो गए
  12. रोहन 125 राजौरी गार्डन दिल्ली में रहता है
  13. यह पत्र 25 जुलाई 2014 को लिखा गया है
  14. बचो बचो सामने से साँड आ रहा है
  15. सुमन तुमने कितना स्वादिष्ट खाना बनाया है

उत्तरः

  1. लोगों ने मि. शर्मा को एम.पी. चुन लिया है।
  2. सुभाष चंद्र बोस ने कहा, “तुम मुझे खून दो मैं तुम्हें आजादी दूंगा।”
  3. “क्या आज प्रधानाचार्य नहीं आए हैं?”
  4. तुलसी ने ‘रामचरित मानस’ में लिखा है-‘परहित सरसि धर्म नहिं भाई’।
  5. तुम कौन हो, कहाँ रहते हो, क्या करते हो, यह सब मैं क्यों पूछू ?
  6. बूढ़े ने डॉ. चड्ढा से कहा, “इसे एक नज़र देख लीजिए, शायद बच जाए।”
  7. ‘कामायनी’ कवि जयशंकर प्रसाद की प्रसिद्ध कृति है।
  8. उस कवि सम्मेलन में रामधारी सिंह ‘दिनकर’, सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी ‘निराला’ जैसे कई महान कवि आए थे।
  9. वसंत ऋतु के त्योहार (होली, वसंत पंचमी, बैसाखी) हमें उल्लास से भर जाते हैं।
  10. हाय! फूल-सी कोमल बच्ची हुई राख की थी ढेरी।
  11. क्या कहा, तुम अनुत्तीर्ण हो गए!
  12. रोहन 125, राजौरी गार्डन, दिल्ली में रहता है।
  13. यह पत्र 25 जुलाई, 2014 को लिखा गया है।
  14. बचो बचो! सामने से साँड आ रहा है।
  15. सुमन, तुमने कितना स्वादिष्ट खाना बनाया है।

पाठ्यपुस्तक के पाठों पर आधारित विराम-चिह्न संबंधी कुछ वाक्य

प्रश्नः
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में उचित विराम-चिह्न का प्रयोग करते हुए दुबारा लिखिए

  1. हिंदी कविता की सुंदर पंक्ति है जिसके कारण धूलि भरे हीरे कहलाए
  2. नीचे को धूरि समान वेद वाक्य नहीं है
  3. धूल धूलि धूली धूरि आदि व्यंजनाएँ अलग अलग हैं
  4. एक आदमी ने घृणा से कहा क्या ज़माना है जवान लड़के को मरे पूरा दिन नहीं बीता और यह बेहया दुकान लगा के बैठी है
  5. दूसरे साहब कह रहे थे जैसी नीयत होती है अल्ला भी वैसी ही बरकत देता है
  6. कल जिसका बेटा चल बसा आज वह बाज़ार में सौदा बेचने चली है हाय रे पत्थर-दिल
  7. उन्होंने अपना हाथ मेरे कंधे पर रखते हुए कहा तुम एक पक्की पर्वतीय लड़की लगती हो तुम्हें तो शिखर पर पहले ही प्रयास में पहुँच जाना चाहिए
  8. हमारे नेता कर्नल खुल्लर के शब्दों में यह इतनी ऊँचाई पर सुरक्षा कार्य का एक ज़बरदस्त साहसिक कार्य था
  9. कर्नल खुल्लर मेरी ओर मुड़कर कहने लगे क्या तुम भयभीत थीं
  10. नहीं मैंने बिना किसी हिचकिचाहट के उत्तर दिया
  11. तुमने इतनी बड़ी जोखिम क्यों ली बचेद्री
  12. साउथ कोल पृथ्वी पर बहुत अधिक कठोर जगह के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है
  13. कर्नल खुल्लर ने बधाई देते हुए कहा मैं तुम्हारी इस अनूठी उपलब्धि के लिए तुम्हारे माता-पिता को बधाई देना चाहूँगा
  14. तीसरे दिन की सुबह तुमने मुझे कहा मैं धोबी को कपड़े देना चाहता हूँ
  15. चलो चलते हैं मैंने कहा ।
  16. यह जिज्ञासा उनसे सवाल कर बैठी आखिर समुद्र का रंग नीला ही क्यों होता है कुछ और क्यों नहीं
  17. रामन ने बी ए और एम ए दोनों ही परीक्षाओं में काफी ऊँचे अंक हासिल किए
  18. शोध कार्यों के दौरान उनके अध्ययन के दायरे में जहाँ वायलिन, चैलो जैसे विदेशी वाद्य यंत्र आए वहीं वीणा, तानपुरा और मृदंगम पर भी उन्होंने काम किया
  19. हम आकाश का वर्णन करते हैं पृथ्वी का वर्णन करते हैं जलाशयों का वर्णन करते हैं पर कीचड़ का वर्णन कभी किसी ने किया है
  20. प्रत्येक आदमी का कर्तव्य यह है कि वह भली-भाँति समझ ले कि महात्मा जी के धर्म का स्वरूप क्या है
  21. कभी-कभी अपना परिचय उनके पीर बावर्ची भिश्ती खर रूप में देने में वे गौरव का अनुभव किया करते थे
  22. गांधी जी कहते थे-महादेव के लिखे नोट के साथ थोड़ा मिलान कर लेना था न

उत्तरः

  1. हिंदी-कविता की सुंदर पंक्ति है, ‘जिसके कारण धूलि भरे हीरे कहलाए’।
  2. ‘नीचे को धूरि समान’ वेद वाक्य नहीं है।
  3. धूल, धूलि, धूली, धूरि आदि व्यंजनाएँ अलग-अलग हैं।
  4. एक आदमी ने घृणा से कहा, “क्या ज़माना है। जवान लड़के को मरे पूरा दिन नहीं बीता और यह बेहया दुकान लगा के बैठी है।
  5. दूसरे साहब कह रहे थे, “जैसी नीयत होती है अल्ला भी वैसी ही बरकत देता है।
  6. कल जिसका बेटा चल बसा, आज वह बाज़ार में सौदा बेचने चली है, हाय रे पत्थर-दिल।
  7. उन्होंने अपना हाथ मेरे कंधे पर रखते हुए कहा, “तुम एक पक्की पर्वतीय लड़की लगती हो। तुम्हें तो शिखर पर पहले ही प्रयास में पहुँच जाना चाहिए।
  8. हमारे नेता कर्नल खुल्लर के शब्दों में, “यह इतनी ऊँचाई पर सुरक्षा-कार्य का एक ज़बरदस्त साहसिक कार्य था।”
  9. कर्नल खुल्लर मेरी ओर मुड़कर कहने लगे, “क्या तुम भयभीत थीं?”
  10. “नहीं, मैंने बिना किसी हिचकिचाहट के उत्तर दिया।”
  11. “तुमने इतनी बड़ी जोखिम क्यों ली, बचेंद्री?”
  12. साउथ कोल ‘पृथ्वी पर बहुत अधिक कठोर जगह’ के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है।
  13. कर्नल खुल्लर ने बधाई देते हुए कहा, “मैं तुम्हारी इस अनूठी उपलब्धि के लिए तुम्हारे माता-पिता को बधाई देता हूँ।”
  14. तीसरे दिन की सुबह तुमने मुझे कहा, “मैं धोबी को कपड़े देना चाहता हूँ।”
  15. “चलो, चलते हैं।” मैंने कहा।
  16. यह जिज्ञासा उनसे सवाल कर बैठी-‘आखिर समुद्र का रंग नीला ही क्यों होता है, कुछ और क्यों नहीं?’
  17. रामन ने बी.ए. और एम.ए.-दोनों ही परीक्षाओं में काफ़ी ऊँचे अंक हासिल किए।
  18. शोध कार्यों के दौरान उनके अध्ययन के दायरे में जहाँ वायलिन, चैलो जैसे विदेशी वाद्य आए, वहीं वीणा, तानपुरा – और मृदंगम पर भी उन्होंने काम किया।
  19. हम आकाश का वर्णन करते हैं, पृथ्वी का वर्णन करते हैं, जलाशयों का वर्णन करते हैं पर कीचड़ का वर्णन कभी किसी ने किया है?
  20. प्रत्येक आदमी का कर्तव्य यह है कि वह भली-भाँति समझ ले कि महात्मा जी के ‘धर्म’ का स्वरूप क्या है?
  21. कभी-कभी अपना परिचय उनके ‘पीर-बावर्ची-भिश्ती-खर’ रूप में देने में वे गौरव का अनुभव किया करते थे
  22. गांधी जी कहते थे-“महादेव के लिखे ‘नोट’ के साथ थोड़ा मिलान कर लेना था न।”

विभिन्न परीक्षाओं में पूछे गए विराम-चिह्न संबंधी प्रश्न

प्रश्नः1.
(i) सत्य अहिंसा और प्रेम जीवन के मूल आधार हैं
(ii) गांधी जी ने कहा परिश्रम का कोई विकल्प नहीं
(iii) तुम कल विद्यालय क्यों नहीं आए
उत्तरः
(i) सत्य, अहिंसा और प्रेम जीवन के मूल आधार हैं।
(ii) गांधी जी ने कहा, “परिश्रम का कोई विकल्प नहीं।”
(iii) तुम कल विद्यालय क्यों नहीं आए?

प्रश्नः 2.
(i) अरे पर्स तो घर में ही छूट गया
(ii) वर्मा जी आप यहाँ किस होटल में ठहरे हैं
(iii) स्पर्श भाग 2 हमारी पाठयपुस्तक है
उत्तरः
(i) अरे! पर्स तो घर में ही छूट गया।
(ii) वर्मा जी, आप यहाँ किस होटल में ठहरे हैं?
(iii) ‘स्पर्श भाग-2’ हमारी पाठ्यपुस्तक है।

प्रश्नः 3.
(i) गणतंत्र दिवस की परेड में बच्चे बूढ़े और स्त्री पुरुष सभी एकत्रित हुए
(ii) वाह कितना सुंदर दृश्य है ।
(iii) आजकल दाल चीनी चावल आटा और फल सब महँगे हो गए हैं
उत्तरः
(i) गणतंत्र दिवस की परेड में बच्चे, बूढ़े और स्त्री-पुरुष सभी उपस्थित हुए।
(ii) वाह ! कितना सुंदर दृश्य है।
(iii) आजकल दाल, चीनी, चावल, आटा और फल सब महँगे हो गए हैं।

प्रश्नः 4.
(i) माँ ने कहा सरल सहज और सादा जीवन हमें प्रकृति से जोड़ता है
(ii) कठिन परिश्रम करो सफलता निकट है।
(iii) बच्चो शांतिपूर्वक बैठो
उत्तरः
(i) माँ ने कहा, “सरल, सहज और सादा जीवन हमें प्रकृति से जोड़ता है।
(ii) कठिन परिश्रम करो, सफलता निकट है।
(iii) बच्चो! शांतिपूर्वक बैठो।

प्रश्नः 5.
(i) एक महात्मा ने मुझको पाला पोसा और इतना बड़ा किया
(ii) भक्त ने पूछा क्या ईश्वर हृदय में निवास करता है
(iii) साधु ने बताया ईश्वर कण कण में बास कहता है
उत्तरः
(i) एक महात्मा ने मुझको पाला, पोसा और इतना बड़ा किया।
(ii) भक्त ने पूछा, “क्या ईश्वर हृदय में निवास करता है।
(iii) साधु ने बताया, “ईश्वर कण-कण में बास कहता है।

प्रश्नः 6.
(i) सोहन इधर आओ
(ii) साधु ने कहा भगवान तुम्हें सुखी रखे
(iii) अहा कितना सुंदर फूल है
उत्तरः
(i) सोहन, इधर आओ।
(ii) साधु ने कहा, “भगवान तुम्हें सुखी रखे।”
(iii) अहा! कितना सुंदर दृश्य है।

प्रश्नः 7.
(i) चिड़ीमार बोला ये कबूतर तोता मैना और मोर बिकाऊ हैं
(ii) क्या तुम आज विद्यालय नहीं जाओगे
(iii) हमें अपने बड़ों की आज्ञा माननी चाहिए।
उत्तरः
(i) चिड़ीमार बोला, “ये कबूतर, तोता, मैना और मोर बिकाऊ हैं।
(ii) “क्या तुम आज विद्यालय नहीं जाओगे?”
(iii) हमें अपने बड़ों की आज्ञा माननी चाहिए।

प्रश्नः 8.
(i) गोदान कफ़न पूस की रात प्रेमचंद की कृतियाँ हैं
(ii) हे भगवान अब क्या होगा
(iii). देशवासियो आपस में मिल-जुलकर रहो
उत्तरः
(i) ‘गोदान’, ‘कफ़न’ ‘पूस की रात’ प्रेमचंद की कृतियाँ हैं।
(ii) हे भगवान! अब क्या होगा?
(iii) देशवासियो! आपस में मिल-जुलकर रहो।

प्रश्नः 9.
(i) जून जुलाई में यहाँ खूब बरसात होती है
(ii) भीड़ नारे लगा रही थी महात्मा गांधी की जय
(iii) आज एम ए का परीक्षाफल आ गया
उत्तरः
(i) जून-जुलाई में यहाँ खूब बारिश होती है।
(ii) भीड़ नारे लगा रही थी-‘महात्मा गांधी की जय।’
(iii) आज एम.ए. का परीक्षाफल आ गया।

प्रश्नः 10.
(i) वह एम एस सी बी० एड् है
(ii). अकबर ने चौंककर कहा तुम रात भर यमुना में खड़े रहे
(iii) उसने बाज़ार में आम अमरूद पपीता और केले खरीदे 88
उत्तरः
(i) वह एम.एस.सी.बी.एड्. है।
(ii) अकबर ने चौंककर कहा, “तुम रात भर यमुना में खड़े रहे !
(iii) उसने बाज़ार में आम, अमरूद, पपीता और केले खरीदे।

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Hindi

The post CBSE Class 9 Hindi B व्याकरण विराम-चिह्न appeared first on Learn CBSE.

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 1

0
0

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 1

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Question-1
According to Ernst Renan what are the attributes of a nation
Solution:
In a lecture delivered at the University of Sorbonne in 1882, the French philosopher Ernst Renan (1823-92) outlined his understanding of what makes a nation. The lecture was subsequently published as a famous essay entitled ‘Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?’ (‘What is a Nation?’).
In this essay Renan criticises the notion suggested by others that a nation is formed by a common language, race, religion, or territory: ‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory, that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite … A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will. The existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. Their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.’

You can also download ncert solutions for class 10 maths to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
Describe the French Revolution.
Solution:
The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France, as you would remember, was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a
body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the
fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other peoples of Europe to become nations. When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.

Question-3
How did nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerge?
Solution:
Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.

Question-4
What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?
Solution:
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property. Yet, equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage.
Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.

Question-5
Give a brief note on the Napoleonic code.
Solution:
The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control.

Question-6
Give two examples to show that in the 18th century Europe there were no nation states.
Solution:
In the mid-eighteenth-century Europe there were no ‘nation-states’ as we know them today. The countries such as Germany, Italy and Switzerland, which we know today were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Often, they even spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.
The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary, for example, was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. It included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland – as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking. It also included the Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish. Besides these three dominant groups, there also lived within the boundaries of the empire, a mass of subject peasant peoples Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola, Croats to the south, and Roumans to the east in Transylvania. Such differences did not easily promote a sense of political unity. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

Question-7
What were the reforms made by Napoleon?
Solution:
Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code –did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another. However, in the areas conquered, the reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed. Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

Question-8
Why were the Middle class so named?
Solution:
Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
In Western and parts of Central Europe the growth of industrial production and trade meant the growth of towns and the emergence of commercial classes whose existence was based on production for the market. Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the nineteenth century. In its wake, new social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals. In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in number till late nineteenth century. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.

Question-9
What led to the spread of conservatism in Europe and what were its impacts?
Solution:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and strong. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.

Question-10
What were the highlights of the Treaty of Vienna 1815?
Solution:
In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The main highlights were to how the nation could develop and what economic measures could help forge this nation together.

Question-11
What was the Romantic Imagination about a nation?
Solution:
Romanticism, a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate.

Question-12
What was the cause of Silesian weavers uprising? Comment on the viewpoint of the
journalist.
Solution:
In 1845, weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.
The journalist Wilhelm Wolff described the events in a Silesian village as follows: In these villages (with 18,000 inhabitants) cotton weaving is the most widespread occupation … The misery of the workers is extreme. The desperate need for jobs has been taken advantage of by the contractors to reduce the prices of the goods they
order …
On 4 June at 2 p.m. a large crowd of weavers emerged from their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding higher wages. They were treated with scorn and threats alternately. Following this, a group of them forced their way into the house, smashed its elegant windowpanes, furniture, porcelain … another group broke into the storehouse and plundered it of supplies of cloth which they tore to shreds … The contractor fled with his family to a neighbouring village which, however, refused to shelter such a person. He returned 24 hours later having requisitioned the army. In the exchange that followed, eleven weavers were shot.

Question-13
How was nation visualized by artists?
Solution:
Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give
the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.

Question-14
On what basis the female allegories were given names?
Solution:
Many female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Question-15
Describe the rise of imperialism.
Solution:
Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in 1914. But meanwhile, many countries in the world which had been colonised by the European powers in the nineteenth century began to oppose imperial domination. The anti-imperial movements that developed everywhere were nationalist, in the sense that they all struggled to form independent nation-states, and were inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism. European ideas of nationalism were nowhere replicated, for people everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism. But the idea that societies should be organised into ‘nation-states’ came to be accepted as natural and universal.

Question-16
According to Ernst Renan what are the attributes of a nation?
Solution:
In a lecture delivered at the University of Sorbonne in 1882, the French philosopher Ernst Renan (1823-92) outlined his understanding of what makes a nation. The lecture was subsequently published as a famous essay entitled ‘Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?’ (‘What is a Nation?’).
In this essay Renan criticises the notion suggested by others that a nation is formed by a common language, race, religion, or territory: ‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory, that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite … A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will. The existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. Their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.’

Question-17
How did nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerge?
Solution:
Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.

Question-18
What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?
Solution:
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property. Yet, equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage.
Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
More Resources for CBSE Class 10:

Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Physics
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The post The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 1 appeared first on Learn CBSE.

The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 2

0
0

The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 2

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China

Question-1
According to Ernst Renan what are the attributes of a nation
Solution:
In a lecture delivered at the University of Sorbonne in 1882, the French philosopher Ernst Renan (1823-92) outlined his understanding of what makes a nation. The lecture was subsequently published as a famous essay entitled ‘Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?’ (‘What is a Nation?’).
In this essay Renan criticises the notion suggested by others that a nation is formed by a common language, race, religion, or territory: ‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory, that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite … A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will. The existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. Their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.’

You can also download Maths NCERT Solutions Class 10 to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
Describe the French Revolution.
Solution:
The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France, as you would remember, was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a
body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the
fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other peoples of Europe to become nations. When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Question-3
How did nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerge?
Solution:
Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
Question-4
What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?
Solution:
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property. Yet, equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage.
Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
Question-5
Give a brief note on the Napoleonic code.
Solution:
The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control.
Question-6
Give two examples to show that in the 18th century Europe there were no nation states.
Solution:
In the mid-eighteenth-century Europe there were no ‘nation-states’ as we know them today. The countries such as Germany, Italy and Switzerland, which we know today were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Often, they even spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.
The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary, for example, was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. It included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland – as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking. It also included the Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish. Besides these three dominant groups, there also lived within the boundaries of the empire, a mass of subject peasant peoples Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola, Croats to the south, and Roumans to the east in Transylvania. Such differences did not easily promote a sense of political unity. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
Question-7
What were the reforms made by Napoleon?
Solution:
Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code –did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another. However, in the areas conquered, the reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed. Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.
Question-8
Why were the Middle class so named?
Solution:
Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
In Western and parts of Central Europe the growth of industrial production and trade meant the growth of towns and the emergence of commercial classes whose existence was based on production for the market. Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the nineteenth century. In its wake, new social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals. In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in number till late nineteenth century. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
Question-9
What led to the spread of conservatism in Europe and what were its impacts?
Solution:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and strong. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
Question-10
What were the highlights of the Treaty of Vienna 1815?
Solution:
In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The main highlights were to how the nation could develop and what economic measures could help forge this nation together.
The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China NCERT Class 10 History Extra Question-11
What was the Romantic Imagination about a nation?
Solution:
Romanticism, a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate.
Question-12
What was the cause of Silesian weavers uprising? Comment on the viewpoint of the
journalist.
Solution:
In 1845, weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.
The journalist Wilhelm Wolff described the events in a Silesian village as follows: In these villages (with 18,000 inhabitants) cotton weaving is the most widespread occupation … The misery of the workers is extreme. The desperate need for jobs has been taken advantage of by the contractors to reduce the prices of the goods they
order …
On 4 June at 2 p.m. a large crowd of weavers emerged from their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding higher wages. They were treated with scorn and threats alternately. Following this, a group of them forced their way into the house, smashed its elegant windowpanes, furniture, porcelain … another group broke into the storehouse and plundered it of supplies of cloth which they tore to shreds … The contractor fled with his family to a neighbouring village which, however, refused to shelter such a person. He returned 24 hours later having requisitioned the army. In the exchange that followed, eleven weavers were shot.
The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China NCERT Class 10 History Extra Question-13
How was nation visualized by artists?
Solution:
Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give
the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
Question-14
On what basis the female allegories were given names?
Solution:
Many female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China NCERT Class 10 History Extra Question-15
Describe the rise of imperialism.
Solution:
Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in 1914. But meanwhile, many countries in the world which had been colonised by the European powers in the nineteenth century began to oppose imperial domination. The anti-imperial movements that developed everywhere were nationalist, in the sense that they all struggled to form independent nation-states, and were inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism. European ideas of nationalism were nowhere replicated, for people everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism. But the idea that societies should be organised into ‘nation-states’ came to be accepted as natural and universal.
Question-16
According to Ernst Renan what are the attributes of a nation?
Solution:
In a lecture delivered at the University of Sorbonne in 1882, the French philosopher Ernst Renan (1823-92) outlined his understanding of what makes a nation. The lecture was subsequently published as a famous essay entitled ‘Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?’ (‘What is a Nation?’).
In this essay Renan criticises the notion suggested by others that a nation is formed by a common language, race, religion, or territory: ‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. A heroic past, great men, glory, that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … Its existence is a daily plebiscite … A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will. The existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. Their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.’
Question-17
How did nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerge?
Solution:
Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China CBSE Class 10 History Question-18
What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?
Solution:
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property. Yet, equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage.
Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights
The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China CBSE Class 10 History Question-19
What led to the spread of conservatism in Europe and what were its impacts?
Solution:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and strong. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.

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Nationalism In India Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 3

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Nationalism In India Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 3

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 Nationalism In India

Question-1
Mention the great men whose work spread the passion for freedom.
Solution:
The works of men like Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Sri Aurobindo, Subramanya Bharathy, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Rabindranath Tagore and Dadabhai Naoroji spread the passion for rejuvenation and freedom.

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Question-2
Give a brief account of Lokmanya Tilak.
Solution:
Lokmanya Tilak, though with non-moderate views, was very popular amongst the masses. He gave the concept of “Swaraj” to the Indian people while standing trial. His popular sentence “Swaraj is my Birthright, and I shall have it” became the source of inspiration for Indians. The flames of the spirit of freedom were ignited by learned men like them, who gave reason for common Indians to feel proud of themselves, demand political and social freedom and seek happiness. They were the teachers who sparked the passion of learning and achievement, for thousands of Indians
Question-3
Give a brief account of Gandhiji’s early life.
Solution:
Gandhi was born to a Hindu family in India on October 2, 1869. He was the first member of his family to graduate from high school. After 3 months of college, he dropped out and soon moved to England. He returned to India in 1891 with a Barrister’s title.
He started a small law practice but it failed.
In 1893 Gandhi moved to South Africa to work as a lawyer’s assistant.
He began working right away on a personal campaign to eliminate racism.
Gandhi spent 11 years in court fighting for Indian rights – and won most of his cases – but the government constantly passed bills to cancel out his victories.
cbse class 10 history ncert solutions Question-4
What were the 3 principles of Satyagraha?
Solution:
The three main principles of satyagraha are … Satya
Ahimsa
Tapasya
… or, the truth, the refusal do harm to others, and willingness for self-sacrifice in the cause.
These three principles, really, form the core of a weapon that Gandhi was determined to use against the British Raj enslaving his country.
cbse class 10 history ncert solutions Question-5
Mention 3 places where Gandhiji successfully organized the Satyagraha movement?
Solution:
Satyagraha movements were successfully organised by Mahatma Gandhi in various places after arriving in India. He organised a satyagraha at Champaran in Bihar in 1916 to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
He then organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat, in 1917.
A satyagraha movement was organised in Ahmedabad, in 1918, amongst cotton mill workers.
Question-6
What were the effects on the economic front due to the non-corporation movement?
Solution:
There was a dramatic effect on the economic front due to the non-cooperation movement. Foreign goods were boycotted, and foreign cloth was burnt.
Traders stopped trading with foreign goods.
With this boycott, the production and consumption of cloth went up in India.
cbse class 10 history textbook Question-7
What was the plight of the plantation workers of Assam?
Solution:
The working class in the tea plantations of Assam is perhaps the most oppressed in the organised sector of the economy. Low wages, poor housing and lack of avenues for social mobility have been a recurring theme since the inception of the plantations.
Plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859. They were rarely given such permission.
cbse class 10 history textbook Question-8
Compare Non-cooperation movement and the civil disobedience movement.
Solution:
Non Cooperation was passive where civil disobedience was active and almost revolutionary. The non co-operation movement aimed at bringing the government to a stand still, by withdrawing every support to administration.
The civil disobedience movement was planned to paralyze the government by mass support by undertaking acts which the British government considered illegal but were protests against exploitative and suppressive measures.

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The Making of a Global World Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 4

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The Making of a Global World Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 4

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Making of a Global World

Question-1
Write a brief note on the ‘ Irish Potato Famine’.
Solution:
Europe’s poor began to eat better and live longer with the introduction of the humble potato. Ireland’s poorest peasants became so dependent on potatoes that when disease destroyed the potato crop in the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands died of starvation . These starvation deaths were called the ‘ Irish Potato Famine’.

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Question-2
What are ‘canal colonies’ ?
Solution:
The British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals in Punjab, to transform semi-desert wastes into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Colonies situated around the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, Canal Colonies. Peasants from other parts of Punjab came and settled in these Canal colonies.
Question-3
Write a short note on Sir Henry Morton Stanley.
Solution:
Stanley was a journalist and explorer sent by the New York Herald to find Livingston, a missionary and explorer who had been in Africa for several years. Like other European and American explorers of the time, Sir Stanley also went with arms, mobilised local hunters, warriors and labourers to help him, fought with local tribes, investigated African terrains, and mapped different regions. These explorations helped the conquest of Africa.
Question-4
Indentured labour migration from India – discuss its causes and its impact.
Solution:
A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his passage to a new country or home is called an Indentured labourer.
Indentured labour migration from India illustrates the two-sided nature of the nineteenth-century world. It was a world of faster economic growth as well as great misery, higher incomes for some and poverty for others, technological advances in some areas and new forms of coercion in others.
In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation.
Most Indian indentured workers came from the present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu. In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes – cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. All this affected the lives of the poor: they failed to pay their rents, became deeply indebted and were forced to migrate in search of work.
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands
Indentured workers were also recruited for tea plantations in Assam.

Many migrants agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages. But soon labourers found conditions to be different from what they had imagined. Living and working conditions were harsh, and there were few legal rights.
The workers discovered their own ways of surviving. Many of them escaped into the wilds, though if caught they faced severe punishment. Others developed new forms of individual and collective self expression, blending different cultural forms, old and new.
These forms of cultural fusion are part of the making of the global world, where things from different places get mixed, lose their original characteristics and become something entirely new.

Question-5
Give a brief account on Indian Bankers and Traders.
Solution:
The Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars of India were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks.
They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
Indian traders and moneylenders also followed European colonisers into Africa. The Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies, and established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide. From the 1860s, they began selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Question-6
What is mass production and mass consumption?
Solution:
One important features of the vibrant US economy of the 1920s was mass production. A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. He adapted the assembly line production to his new car plant in Detroit.
The assembly line production forced workers to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously – such as fitting a particular part to the car – at a pace dictated by the conveyor belt. This was a way of increasing the output per worker by speeding up the pace of work.
Standing in front of a conveyor belt no worker could afford to delay the motions, take a break, or even have a friendly word with a workmate. As a result, Henry
Ford’s cars came off the assembly line at three-minute intervals, a speed much faster than that achieved by previous methods. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.
Mass production reduced the cost of goods and this resulted in mass consumption.

Question-7
Colonialism during the late 19th century – discuss.
Solution:
Trade flourished and markets expanded resulting in increased prosperity in the late nineteenth century. In many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy also meant a loss of freedoms and livelihoods. European conquests in the late nineteenth-century produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes through which the colonised societies were brought into the world economy.
Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories. In 1885 the big European powers met in Berlin to complete the carving up of Africa between them. Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century.
Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.
The impact of colonialism on the economy and livelihoods of colonised people was destructive.

Question-8
What were the crucial influences that shaped post-war ( II World War) reconstruction?
Solution:
Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world. The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union. It had made huge sacrifices to defeat Nazi Germany, and transformed itself from a backward agricultural country into a world power during the very years when the capitalist world was trapped in the Great Depression.
Question-9
Write a short note on Sir Henry Morton Stanley.
Solution:
Stanley was a journalist and explorer sent by the New York Herald to find Livingston, a missionary and explorer who had been in Africa for several years. Like other European and American explorers of the time, Sir Stanley also went with arms, mobilised local hunters, warriors and labourers to help him, fought with local tribes, investigated African terrains, and mapped different regions. These explorations helped the conquest of Africa.
Question-10
Give a brief account on Indian Bankers and Traders.
Solution:
The Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars of India were amongst the many groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, using either their own funds or those borrowed from European banks.
They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distances, and even developed indigenous forms of corporate organisation.
Indian traders and moneylenders also followed European colonisers into Africa. The Hyderabadi Sindhi traders, however, ventured beyond European colonies, and established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide. From the 1860s, they began selling local and imported curios to tourists whose numbers were beginning to swell, thanks to the development of safe and comfortable passenger vessels.

Question-11
What were the crucial influences that shaped post-war (II World War) reconstruction?
Solution:
Two crucial influences shaped post-war reconstruction. The first was the US’s emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world. The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union. It had made huge sacrifices to defeat Nazi Germany, and transformed itself from a backward agricultural country into a world power during the very years when the capitalist world was trapped in the Great Depression.
Question-12
What are ‘canal colonies’?
Solution:
The British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals in Punjab, to transform semi-desert wastes into fertile agricultural lands that could grow wheat and cotton for export. The Colonies situated around the areas irrigated by the new canals were called, Canal Colonies. Peasants from other parts of Punjab came and settled in these Canal colonies.
History
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The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 5

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The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 5

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age Of Industrialisation

Question-1
How do Cloth Merchants function?
Solution:
A Cloth Merchant who sells cloth or clothes first invests money and buys wool from a wool stapler. He then takes the wool to the craftsmen in the villages and asks them to spin it into yarn. The yarn is given to the weavers, who are also in the villages. From the weavers it moves on to the fullers and then the dyers. The final finishing of the cloth or garment is done in the towns. The finished product is then sold in the International market, by the Merchants.
You can also download Class 10 Maths to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
What were the benefits enjoyed by the villagers in the proto- industrial system.
Solution:
As common agricultural land was disappearing, the villagers and poor peasants, who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, had to look for alternative sources of income. The Merchants provided them with this alternative source of income.
By working for the merchants, the peasants could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. It allowed the villagers a complete use of their family labour resources, as all the members of the family could work for these merchants.
Question-3
Write a brief note on the cotton Industry
Solution:
New machinery was invented, in the cotton industry for carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling. These machines enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more. Stronger threads were produced due to the modern machinery.
The Cotton mill was created by Richard Arkwright. Weaving of cloth which was done in the cottages by the villagers was now mass produced in these modern cotton mills. All the activities required for weaving cloth from raw cotton was now done under one roof- the cotton mill. This made supervision easier and production faster and quality finer. Soon factories became very popular.
Question-4
Discuss the plight of the Indian weavers with the advent of the East India company.
Solution:
The textile trade in India continued for some time even after the advent of the East India Company in the 1760s and 1770s.The scene changed when the East India Company established political power.
The East India Company asserted a monopoly right to trade. It developed a system of management and control that eliminated competition and controlled costs. The company through its authority was able to ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods.
The Company eliminated the existing traders and brokers in the cloth trade. It established direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth. The Company prevented its weavers from dealing with other buyers by paying them advances.
The village weavers who used to cultivate their small pieces of land and weave during their leisure time now took to weaving as their full time job. All the members of the family were involved in weaving. Soon problems between the supervisors and the weavers set in. Outsiders were appointed as supervisors.
As the East India Company was the sole trader, the weavers had to be satisfied with whatever price the company gave, even if it was very low. Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.
Many weavers refused the loans offered by the Company, closed their workshops and went back to farming.
The 19th century brought more problems for the Indian weavers.
Question-5
Write a brief note on the East India company.
Solution:
The East India Company was also called “Company Bahadur” in India. It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the East India Company a 21 year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its disSolution in 1858 following the the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Age Of Industrialistion CBSE Class 10 History Extra Question-6

Write a brief note on the Spinning Jenny.
Solution:
The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves, in the north west of England. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker being able to work eight or more spools at a time. The spinning jenny was so effective in increasing the efforts of a worker’s labor that Karl Marx cited it as the cause behind the elimination of slavery.
The Age Of Industrialistion CBSE Class 10 History Extra Question-7
What were the problems faced by the textile manufacturers in India in the late 1800s ?
Solution:
Exports declined and import of textiles increased. The Indian textile manufactures could neither sell their goods outside India nor could they sell their goods inside India.
Import of English textiles into India increased from 31 % to 50 %. As imported machine –made textiles was cheaper, the Indian weavers could not compete with it.
Raw cotton from India was exported to feed the Cotton mills of England and the Indian textile industry was without enough raw materials. Soon mechanised textile mill were also set up in India and the hand -weavers were virtually without any work.
The Age Of Industrialistion CBSE Class 10 History Extra Question-8
What was the Swadeshi movement?
Solution:
The Swadeshi movement was part of the Indian independence movement It was a successful economic strategy to remove the British Empire from power and improve economic conditions in India through the principles of self-sufficiency.
Strategies of the swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic-made products and production techniques. Swadeshi, as a strategy, was a key focus of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the Indian Nation. He described the ‘swadeshi movement’ as the soul of self rule or independence.
Question-9
How do Cloth Merchants function?
Solution:
A Cloth Merchant who sells cloth or clothes first invests money and buys wool from a wool stapler. He then takes the wool to the craftsmen in the villages and asks them to spin it into yarn. The yarn is given to the weavers, who are also in the villages. From the weavers it moves on to the fullers and then the dyers. The final finishing of the cloth or garment is done in the towns. The finished product is then sold in the International market, by the Merchants.
The Age Of Industrialistion CBSE Class 10 History Extra Question-10
What were the benefits enjoyed by the villagers in the proto- industrial system?
Solution:
As common agricultural land was disappearing, the villagers and poor peasants, who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, had to look for alternative sources of income. The Merchants provided them with this alternative source of income.
By working for the merchants, the peasants could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. It allowed the villagers a complete use of their family labour resources, as all the members of the family could work for these merchants.
The Age Of Industrialistion CBSE Class 10 History Extra Question-11
Write a brief note on the cotton Industry.
Solution:
New machinery was invented, in the cotton industry for carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling. These machines enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more. Stronger threads were produced due to the modern machinery.
The Cotton mill was created by Richard Arkwright. Weaving of cloth which was done in the cottages by the villagers was now mass produced in these modern cotton mills. All the activities required for weaving cloth from raw cotton was now done under one roof- the cotton mill. This made supervision easier and production faster and quality finer. Soon factories became very popular.
The Age Of Industrialistion CBSE Class 10 History Extra Question-12
What were the problems faced by the textile manufacturers in India in the late 1800s ?
Solution:
Exports declined and import of textiles increased. The Indian textile manufactures could neither sell their goods outside India nor could they sell their goods inside India.
Import of English textiles into India increased from 31 % to 50 %. As imported machine –made textiles was cheaper, the Indian weavers could not compete with it.
Raw cotton from India was exported to feed the Cotton mills of England and the Indian textile industry was without enough raw materials. Soon mechanised textile mill were also set up in India and the hand -weavers were virtually without any work.

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Work Life and Leisure Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 6

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Work Life and Leisure Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 6

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 6 Work Life and Leisure

Question-1
What were the three historical factors that shaped modern cities ?
Solution:
The three historical factors that shaped modern cities were….
• The rise of industrial capitalism
• The establishment of colonial rule over large parts of the world
• The development of democratic ideals.

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Question-2
Solution:
The characteristics of a modern city are…
• Modern cites are often the centres of political power and administration.
• Trade and industries flourish here.
• Cities were filled with educational and religious institutions as they were thickly populated.
• Cities support various social groups such as artisans, merchants and priests.
Question-3
Solution:
Cities can be classified into big cities and small cities.
• The larger cities are called metropolises. They are the political and economic centre for a larger region. They are thickly populated.
• The smaller cities are not as thickly populated and their functions are not as important as the metropolises.
Question-4
What is the Brief History of London and how Industries flourished in London?
Solution:
In 1750, 1/10th of the British population lived in London. It was a massive city with a population of about 675,000. London continued to expand during the 19th century.Its population multiplied fourfold between 1810 and 1880, increasing from 1 million to about 4 million.
London was like a magnet for the migrant populations, even though it did not have large factories. The city was full of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled and semi- skilled artisans, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers, and beggars.
The Industries that flourished in London were..
• The shipping dockyards.
• The clothing and footwear Industry.
• The wood and furniture Industry.
• The metal and engineering Industry.
• The printing and stationery Industry.
• The surgical instruments and watch Industry.
During the First World War London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods, and these large factories employed nearly one-third of the labour force.
Question-5
Write a note on the chawls of Bombay.
Solution:
Chawls were multi-storeyed structures which were built in the ‘native’ parts of the town. These houses were owned by private landlords who rented these chawls to migrant workers. Each chawl was divided into smaller one-room tenements which had no private toilets. Many families could reside at a time in a tenement.
80 % of Bombay’s population resided in these chawls.
The chawls were not hygienic and as many people were living in a small area they faced a lot of problems. Water was scarce in these chawls. As the chawls were very small, streets and neighbourhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping.
Liquor shops and akharas came up in empty spaces. Streets were used for different types of leisure activities. Magicians, monkey players and acrobats used the streets to stage their shows.
People of the lower caste were not allowed into the chawls. The lower caste people were forced to live in temporary shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves and bamboo poles.
Question-6
What are the challenges faced by big cities?
Solution:
Big cities face many problems, the main one being environmental problems.
City development causes great harm to the ecology and the surrounding environment. Natural features, like hills were flattened out to create more space in the cities. Due to the vast population, air, water and land get polluted.
Another major challenge faced by big cities all over the world was noise pollution. The heavy traffic and the blaring horns are the cause for this noise pollution.
Smoke from factories darkened the city skies and caused health hazards for the city dwellers.
Factory wastes contaminated the waterways and land.
The need for housing destroys the greenery and results in poor quality of air.
Governments all over the world are doing their best to control pollution and provide a save living space for the growing city dwellers.
Question-7
What were the steps taken to clean up London?
Solution:
Various steps were taken to clean up London. Attempts were made to spread out the tenements. Parks were created and trees were planted to reduce pollution.
Large blocks of apartments were built.
The city dwellers longed for the fresh country side. So a ‘green belt’ was created around London. Ebenezer Howard, an Architect, developed the principle of the Garden City, a city full of plants and trees, where people would both live and work. This would ensure a better quality of life for the city dwellers.
Ebenezer Howard called for the creation of new suburban towns of limited size, planned in advance, and surrounded by a permanent belt of agricultural land. These Garden cities were used as a role model for many suburbs. Howard believed that such Garden Cities were the perfect blend of city and nature. The towns would be largely independent, and managed and financed by the citizens who had an economic interest in them
The Government realising the need for good housing for the city dwellers built a million houses, most of them single-family cottages.
Question-8
Describe social life in London.
Solution:
Social life changed in London as industrialisation set in.
Ties between family members loosened and the institution of marriage broke down. Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain had an easier life as they could employ domestic maids to do the entire house –work, but they were isolated.
Women who worked for wages were more in control of their lives. Social reformers were worried about the declining family system and wanted to reconstruct it.
The city life created a new spirit of individualism among the men and women. They wanted freedom from their rural social values. Women were at a disadvantage compared to the men. Women lost their industrial jobs and they were ridiculed in pubic places by the conservative people. It became an unwritten law that public places were for the men and the home was for the women. It was only in the late 1800s that women were allowed to enter the political arena and were granted some rights.
By the twentieth century, the urban family was a small unit and became the focal point for goods and services.
New industries in the city provided mass work, and soon the working people needed mass leisure on Sundays and other common holidays.
As the need for recreation increased among the working class, cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre and classical music performances increased. Working classes also met in pubs to have a drink, exchange news. Many new types of large-scale entertainment for the common people came into existence.
In the nineteenth century Libraries, art galleries and museums were built. Music halls and cinemas became popular among the lower classes. British industrial workers spent their holidays by the sea.
Question-9
Write a note on the chawls of Bombay.
Solution:
Chawls were multi-storeyed structures which were built in the ‘native’ parts of the town. These houses were owned by private landlords who rented these chawls to migrant workers. Each chawl was divided into smaller one-room tenements which had no private toilets. Many families could reside at a time in a tenement.
80 % of Bombay’s population resided in these chawls.
Question-10
Write a note on London.
Solution:
In 1750, 1/10th of the British population lived in London. It was a massive city with a population of about 675,000. London continued to expand during the 19th century.Its population multiplied fourfold between 1810 and 1880, increasing from 1 million to about 4 million.
London was like a magnet for the migrant populations, even though it did not have large factories. The city was full of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled and semi- skilled artisans, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers, and beggars.
Question-11
What are the challenges faced by big cities?
Solution:
Big cities face many problems, the main one being environmental problems.
City development causes great harm to the ecology and the surrounding environment. Natural features, like hills were flattened out to create more space in the cities. Due to the vast population, air, water and land get polluted.
Another major challenge faced by big cities all over the world was noise pollution. The heavy traffic and the blaring horns are the cause for this noise pollution.
Smoke from factories darkened the city skies and caused health hazards for the city dwellers.
Factory wastes contaminated the waterways and land.
The need for housing destroys the greenery and results in poor quality of air.

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Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 7

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Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 7

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 7 Print Culture and the Modern World

Question-1
Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.
Solution:
The first form of print technology used wooden blocks which were carved with words or designs. The carvings were in relief. These wooden blocks were inked. Then paper was rubbed against it. The markings now made an impression on the paper. The paper was thin and so printing was done only on one side. The papers were folded and stitched.

You can also download NCERT Solutions Class 10 Maths to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
How did the urban population use the print media?
Solution:
Merchants used print in their daily life, to update trade information. People stated reading fiction, poetry, biographies, autobiographies, and romantic plays during their leisure time. Rich women began to read, and many women began publishing their poetry and plays. Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives.
Question-3
When was print technology introduced in Japan?
Solution:
Print technology was introduced in Japan around AD 768-770. Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan .The oldest Japanese book, the Buddhist Diamond Sutra was printed in AD 868. It contained six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations
Question-4
Who was Marco Polo?
Solution:
Marco Polo was a great explorer. He was in China for many years and he learnt the printing technology from the Chinese during his years of exploration. He returned to Italy in 1295 and introduced this new technology.
Question-5
Why did the demand for hand written books diminish?
Solution:
The demand for hand-written books slowly diminished. Copying by hand was expensive, laborious and time-consuming. These hand written manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Woodblock printing gradually became more and more popular as the demand for books increased.
Question-6
How did the print revolution influence the reading habit of the people of Europe?
Solution:
Due to the print revolution the reading habit of the public increased, as books were now less costly. This was because the time and labour required to produce a book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.
Books flooded the market, and were easily available for the public. Before printed books flooded the markets the common people used to gather in Public places and books were read out to them. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated.
This listening culture turned to reading culture when books became cheaper.
Question-7
Write a brief note on Martin Luther.
Solution:
Martin Luther was a religious reformer. In 1517 he wrote the ‘Ninety Five Theses’ criticising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A printed copy of this was pasted on a church door in Wittenberg. The Church was prompted to discuss his ideas.
Soon Martin Luther’s Ninety Five Theses’ was printed in vast numbers and read widely. This lead to a division within the Church and was the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther’s translation of the New Testament sold 5,000 copies within a few weeks and a second edition appeared within three months.
Several scholars felt print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to the Reformation.
Question-8
Write a short note on Indian manuscripts.
Solution:
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were beautifully illustrated. These manuscripts were bound between wooden covers or sewn together for preservation. Manuscripts were produced in India even after print technology was introduced.
Manuscripts were expensive and fragile and had to be handled carefully. It was difficult to read manuscripts as they were written in different styles.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-9
Mass literacy increased many fold in the nineteenth century, in Europe. Women children and workers started reading books. Discuss.
Solution:
Primary education was compulsory in the late nineteenth century. Children became an important category of readers. The printing industry now had its hands full by printing school books. A Children’s press was set up in France in 1857 which catered solely to books for children. This press published new stories as well as old fairy tales and folk tales.
The Grimm Brothers in Germany compiled traditional folk tales gathered from peasants and the book was published in a collection in 1812. Rural folk tales now had a new form.
Women became important as readers as well as writers. Penny magazines were published exclusively for women. They contained articles on proper behaviour and housekeeping. Novels became popular as women started reading them.
Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, and George Eliot were well known authors. Their writings became important in defining a new type of woman, who had will –power, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.
Lending libraries became popular in the seventeenth century as the literacy rate increased and many took to reading. Books became instruments for educating white-collar workers, artisans and lower-middle-class people.
Books themselves in a way increased literacy. Working class people wrote for themselves and used books for self education.
After the working day was gradually shortened from the mid-nineteenth century, workers had time for self-improvement and self-expression. They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-10
How did the print media affect the women in India?
Solution:
Lives and feelings of women were written with intensity. This increased the number of women who took to reading. Liberal husbands and fathers started educating their womenfolk at home and some sent them to schools. Many journals began carrying writings by women, and explained why women should be educated. They also carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could be used for home-based schooling.
Superstition was a reason for illiteracy among a large population of women.
• Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed.
• Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances.
Social reforms and novels created a great interest in women’s lives and emotions. Women’s opinions and views were slowly considered and respected. Stories were written about how about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the very people they served. Stories about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women, especially widows also appeared in print. These stories paved the way for the liberation of the suppressed Indian woman.
Other kinds of literature solely for women soon flooded the markets.
• Article on household and fashion lessons for women.
• Articles on issues like women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriage and the national movement.
• Short stories and serialised novels.
• Folk literature.
In Bengal, an entire area in central Calcutta – the Battala – was devoted to the printing of popular books. These books were being profusely illustrated with woodcuts and coloured lithographs. Peddlers took the Battala publications to homes, enabling women to read them in their leisure time.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-11
Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.
Solution:
The first form of print technology used wooden blocks which were carved with words or designs. The carvings were in relief. These wooden blocks were inked. Then paper was rubbed against it. The markings now made an impression on the paper. The paper was thin and so printing was done only on one side. The papers were folded and stitched.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-12
How did the print revolution influence the reading habit of the people of Europe?
Solution:
Due to the print revolution the reading habit of the public increased, as books were now less costly. This was because the time and labour required to produce a book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.
Books flooded the market, and were easily available for the public. Before printed books flooded the markets the common people used to gather in Public places and books were read out to them. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated.
This listening culture turned to reading culture when books became cheaper.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-13
Write a short note on Indian manuscripts
Solution:
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were beautifully illustrated. These manuscripts were bound between wooden covers or sewn together for preservation. Manuscripts were produced in India even after print technology was introduced.
Manuscripts were expensive and fragile and had to be handled carefully. It was difficult to read manuscripts as they were written in different styles.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-14
What is calligraphy?
Solution:
Calligraphy is the art of writing beautiful letters by hand.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-15
What medium was used for writing ancient Indian scriptures?
Solution:
Palm leaves ( Bhoj patra) was used to write ancient scriptures.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-16
Who invented the letter press?
Solution:
Letter Press was invented by Johann Gutenberg in Germany.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-17
Who brought out the first Indian newspaper published in English?
Solution:
Gangadhar Bhattacharya brought out the first English newspaper in India.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-18
How was sale of books promoted in small towns?
Solution:
Peddlers carried illustrated books to homes in small towns.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-19
Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.
Solution:
The first form of print technology used wooden blocks which were carved with words or designs. The carvings were in relief. These wooden blocks were inked. Then paper was rubbed against it. The markings now made an impression on the paper. The paper was thin and so printing was done only on one side. The papers were folded and stitched.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-20
How did the print revolution influence the reading habit of the people of Europe?
Solution:
Due to the print revolution the reading habit of the public increased, as books were now less costly. This was because the time and labour required to produce a book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.
Books flooded the market, and were easily available for the public. Before printed books flooded the markets the common people used to gather in Public places and books were read out to them. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated.
This listening culture turned to reading culture when books became cheaper.
Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 7 Question-21
Write a short note on Indian manuscripts
Solution:
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were beautifully illustrated. These manuscripts were bound between wooden covers or sewn together for preservation. Manuscripts were produced in India even after print technology was introduced.
Manuscripts were expensive and fragile and had to be handled carefully. It was difficult to read manuscripts as they were written in different styles.

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Novels Society and History Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 8

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Novels Society and History Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 8

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 8 Novels Society and History

Question-1
What was the reason for the popularity of the novel?
Solution:
There were several reasons for the popularity of the novel. The worlds created by novels were absorbing and believable. The reader was transported to another world he enjoyed. The reader began looking at life as it was experienced by the characters of the novel. Novels allowed individuals the pleasure of reading in private and they enjoyed discussing stories they had read with friends or relatives.

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Question-2
Solution:
A Novel is a long work of written fiction. Most novels involve many characters and tell a complex story by placing the characters in a number of different situations. Novels are long—generally 200 pages or more, so novelists can tell more richly detailed tales than authors of briefer literary forms such as the short story.
Question-3
Write a brief note on Rabindranath Tagore .
Solution:
Rabindranath Tagore was a famous Bengali writer. His early novels were historical , but he later started writing stories about domestic relationships. He wrote about the condition of women and nationalism.
One of his famous novels was Ghare Baire (1916). This was translated in 1919 as ‘The Home and the World’.
Question-4
Write about Thomas Hardy’s Mayor of Caster Bridge.
Solution:
Thomas Hardy, was a famous British novelist, of the 19th century. He wrote about the rural communities of England. One of Hardy’s very famous novels was Mayor of Casterbridge. It was written in 1886.
The hero of the novel was Michael Henchard, a successful grain merchant, who eventually became the mayor of the farming town of Casterbridge. He is an independent-minded man who follows his own style in conducting business. He was portrayed as being unpredictably generous and cruel with his employees. The hero’s rival is projected as being even-tempered. From these characterisations we see that Hardy mourns the loss of the more personalised world that is disappearing, even as he is aware of its problems and the advantages of the new order.
The novel, Mayor of Casterbridge is written in the language that is spoken by the common people. The novel produces the sense of a shared world between diverse people in a nation, by using different spoken languages.
Question-5
Write a short note on novels for the young.
Solution:
Novels for young boys idealised a new type of man. The heroes of these novels were powerful, assertive, independent and daring. These novels were full of adventure set in places remote from Europe.
Some of the novels, written for young boys, became very popular.
• R.L. Stevenson’s Treasure Island (1883)
• Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Book (1894)
• G.A. Henry’s historical adventure novels for boys.

These novels aroused the excitement and adventure of conquering strange lands. They were set in Mexico, Alexandria, Siberia and many other countries. Young boys were heroes of thee novels and they were portrayed as witnesses to grand historical events.
These novels also instigated ‘English’ courage in the minds of the young boys who read these novels.
Love stories written for adolescent girls became popular especially in the US
• Helen Hunt Jackson’s Ramona (1884)
• Sarah Chauncey Woolsey’s What Katy Did (1872) .
Question-6
Write an account on the popular regional writers in colonial India.
Solution:
Novels were different in the different regions of India. Chandu Menon, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Premchand were some of the popular regional writers.
The new novels in Indian languages had descriptions of domestic life of the people. They portrayed the culture, dress code, habits , religious beliefs and practises of the people of that particular region. Some of these books were translated into English, by British administrators or Christian missionaries.
Novels began appearing in south Indian languages during the period of colonial rule. Quite a few early novels came out of attempts to translate English novels into Indian languages.
Novels in Malayalam
O. Chandu Menon, translated an English novel called Henrietta Temple written by Benjamin Disraeli into Malayalam. The Indian readers did not relish the translated novel as they were not able to identify with the characters.
So, O. Chandu Menon, wrote Indulekha, which was published in 1889. It was the first modern novel in Malayalam.
Novels in Telugu
Kandukuri Viresalingam (1848-1919) translated Oliver Goldsmith’s Vicar of Wakefield into Telugu. His translation was not successful. So he wrote an original Telugu novel called Rajasekhara Caritamu in 1878.
Novels in Hindi
Bharatendu Harishchandra, was the pioneer of modern Hindi literature. He was encouraged by poets and writers to recreate and translate novels from other languages.
Srinivas Das’s novel, Pariksha-Guru was published in 1882.The novel cautioned young men of well-to-do families against the dangerous influences of bad company and consequent loose morals.
Novels in Bengali
The early Bengali novels lived in two worlds.
Novels based on historical events.
Novels based on domestic life in contemporary settings.
Domestic novels dealt with the social problems and romantic relationships between men and women.
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was a famous Bengali novelist. His novels had ingenious twists and turns of the plot. There was suspense and the language was relished. The prose style of his novels became a new object of enjoyment. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s first novel was Durgeshnandi.
Question-7
Solution:
The novel is a modern form of literature. The invention of printing made this form of literature possible. In ancient times manuscripts were handwritten and circulated among very few people. With the advent of printing novels were widely read and became popular very quickly.
Novels produced a number of common interests among the fast growing population of the cities in western countries. The readers were drawn into the story and identified themselves with the lives of fictitious characters in the novels.
Novels became popular in England and France, initially. Novels were first written in the seventeenth century but flourished only from the eighteenth century.
Novel were read by a wide variety of people. Shopkeepers and clerks also started reading novels which were hitherto read only buy the aristocratic and gentlemanly classes in England and France.
The earnings of authors increased as readership grew and the market for books expanded. This gave the writers independence to experiment with different literary styles.
Henry Fielding, a novelist of the early eighteenth century, claimed he was ‘the founder of a new province of writing’ where he could make his own laws.
The novel allowed flexibility in the form of writing.
Question-8
What is Epistolary?
Solution:
It is a novel written in the form of a series of letters.
Question-10
What is a satire?
Solution:
A attire is a form of representation through writing that provides a criticism of the society in a manner that is both witty and clever.
Question-11
Name any three novels by Premchand.
Solution:
Godan, Sevasadan and Rangbhoomi are the novels written by Premchand.
Question-12
What is meant by vernacular as a language?
Solution:
It is the normal form of spoken language as different from the literary form.
Question-13
Write a short note on novels for the young.
Solution:
These novels aroused the excitement and adventure of conquering strange lands. They were set in Mexico, Alexandria, Siberia and many other countries. Young boys were heroes of these novels and they were portrayed as witnesses to grand historical events.
These novels also instigated ‘English’ courage in the minds of the young boys who read these novels.
The heroes of these novels were powerful, assertive, independent and daring. These novels were full of adventure set in places remote from Europe.
Love stories written for adolescent girls became popular especially in the US
Question-14
Write about Thomas Hardy’s Mayor of Caster Bridge.
Solution:
Thomas Hardy, was a famous British novelist, of the 19th century. He wrote about the rural communities of England. One of Hardy’s very famous novels was Mayor of Casterbridge. It was written in 1886.
The hero of the novel was Michael Henchard, a successful grain merchant, who eventually became the mayor of the farming town of Casterbridge.
The novel, Mayor of Casterbridge is written in the language that is spoken by the common people. The novel produces the sense of a shared world between diverse people in a nation, by using different spoken languages.
Question-15
Write about the early Bengali novels.
Solution:
The early Bengali novels lived in two worlds
Novels based on historical events. Novels based on domestic life in contemporary settings.
Domestic novels dealt with the social problems and romantic relationships between men and women.
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was a famous Bengali novelist. His novels had ingenious twists and turns of the plot. There was suspense and the language was relished. The prose style of his novels became a new object of enjoyment. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s first novel was Durgeshnan
Question-16
What was the reason for the popularity of the novel?
Solution:
There were several reasons for the popularity of the novel. The worlds created by novels were absorbing and believable. The reader was transported to another world he enjoyed. The reader began looking at life as it was experienced by the characters of the novel. Novels allowed individuals the pleasure of reading in private and they enjoyed discussing stories they had read with friends or relatives.

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Resources and Development CBSE Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

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Resources and Development CBSE Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

Resources and Development NCERT TextBook Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

Question-1
Write a short note on classiification of resources.
Solution:
The resources can be classified in the following ways –
(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable
(c) On the basis of ownership – individual,community, national and international
(d) On the basis of status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves.

You can also download NCERT Maths Class 10 to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
Give the difference between renewable resources and non-renewable resources with examples.
Solution:
The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. While Non-renewable resources are resources that take millions of years in their formation.
Question-3
Give the two factors that determine soil fertility.
Solution:
1)Soil fertility depends on is composition. Sandy soil is not suitable for agriculture as they do not retain water which the plant roots need for survival. The ideal soils contain a mixture of sand and clay.
2) The humus content determines soil fertility. Organic farm yard manures improve the humus content.
Question-4
What is the classification of alluvial soil on the basis of their age ? Mention their characteristics.
Solution:
Apart from the size of their grains or components, soils are also classified on the basis of their age. According to their age, alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial ( Bangar ) and new alluvial ( Khadar ). The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar .
Question-5
Give a short note on reserves.
Solution:
Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilized only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.
Question-6
Major problem faced due to the indiscriminate use of resources by Man- Discuss.
Solution:
Human beings used the resources indiscriminately and this has led to the following problems.
1) Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
2) Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two, segments i.e. haves and have-nots or rich and poor.
Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises.
Question-7
Write a paragraph on resource planning.
Solution:
Resource planning is a complex process, which involves:
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Question-8
What was the views of Gandhiji on resource conservation?
Solution:
Gandhiji voiced his concern about resource conservation in the following words: “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed.” He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.
Question-9
Name the five types of land resource.
Solution:
Land resources are made up of:
1. Forests
2. Land not available for cultivation:
(a) Barren and waste land
(b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land):
(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,
(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area),
(c) Cultivable wasteland (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
4. Fallow lands
(a) Current fallow (left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
(b) Other than current fallow- (left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
5. Net sown area-Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area .
Question-10
What are the factors that determine the use of land?
Solution:
The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, and soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.
Question-11
What has significantly contributed to land degradation?
Solution:
Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying too have contributed significantly in land egradation. Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over-burdening. In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation. In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. In the states of Punjab, Haryana,western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.
Question-12
How can the problem of deforestation be solved?
Solution:
There are many ways to solve the problems of land degradation. 1.Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent.
2.Planting of shelter belts of plants, control on over grazing, stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes
3. In industrial and suburban areas, proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.
Question-13
Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. Explain.
Solution:
It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth. The soil is a living system. It takes
millions of years to form soil upto a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes, which take place in the soil, are equally important. Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.
Question-14
Give a brief note on the productivity of alluvial soil.
Solution:
Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile. Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.
Question-15
Is black soil easy to work, in hot climate? Explain.
Solution:
The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.
Question-16
Give a brief note on arid soil.
Solution:
Arid soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water. Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture. The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water. After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.
Question-17
Mention any two methods for reducing fallow land.
Solution:
The two methods for reducing fallow Land are :
1. Use fertilizers
2. Crop rotation or multiple cropping.
Question-18
What are the two disturbing features of land – use pattern?
Solution:
The two distributing features of land-use pattern are:
1.Forests
2.Barren wastelands.
Question-19
Give two characteristics of alluvial soil.
Solution:
Two main characteristics of alluvial soil are:
1. Alluvial soil is the most widespread soil in India.
2. It is made by deposits brought down by the rivers year after year and are very fertile,
They are very suitable for cultivation.
Question-20
What was the root cause for resources depletion at the global level, according to Gandhiji ?
Solution:
(i) Greedy and selfish nature of the individual.
(ii) Exploitation nature of modern technology.
Question-21
What are the problems faced due to mismanagement of resources?
Solution:
(i) Over utilization of resources leads to their depletion.
(ii) Over utilization of the resources leads to environment degradation.
Question-22
What is conservation of resources?
Solution:
It is defined as the management of the resources by humans. It aims at satisfying the needs of the present generations as well as the aspirations of the future generations.
Question-23
What is resource planning?
Solution:
It is a widely accepted strategy for the judicious use of resources, eg Dalhousie has vast forest resources but lacks in infrastructural facilities. Hence planning is required in developing the resources.
Question-24
Give the importance of human beings as an essential component of resource?
Solution:
Man transforms material available in our environment into resources uses them. Thus Man is considered as an important component of the Resource. eg. Wood is a material when it is utilized it become a piece of furniture, which is a resource.
Question-25
Define Resource.
Solution:
Everything available in our environment, which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided it is technologically accessible, economically flexible and culturally acceptable, can be termed as resource.
Question-26
Where is black soil found ?
(A) Jammu and Kashmir
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Gujarat
(D) Jharkhand
Solution:
(C) Gujarat.
Question-27
Where is gully erosion is commonly found?
(A) Kutch basin
(B) Saurasthra basin
(C) Chambal basin
(D) Southern Plateau
Solution:
(C) Chambal basin.
Question-28
In which of the following states, is the net sown area under irrigation lowest?
(a) Haryana, Punjab
(b) Bengal, Bihar, Assam
(C) Himachal, Assam, Maharashtra, Karnataka
(D) Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat
Solution:
(C) Himachal, Assam, Maharashtra, Karnataka.
Question-29
Where is laterite soil found?
(A) Jammu and Kashmir
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Kerala
(D) Jharkhand
Solution:
(B) Rajasthan.
Question-30
Where is land is degraded caused due to excessive cultivation?
(A) Madhya Pradesh
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Punjab
(D) Gujarat
Solution:
(C) Punjab.
Question-31
Which is not a factor, in process of transformation of resources in the given environment?
(A) Technology
(B) Institutions
(C) Wild life
(D) Human Society
Solution:
(C) Wild life.
Question-32
(A) Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh
(B) Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Bihar
(C) Goa, Karnataka, Kerala
(D) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa
Solution:
(A) Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
Question-33
Choose the correct percentage of land division in India.
(A) Plains – 28%, Mountains – 16%, Plateaus – 60%
(B) Plains – 40%, Mountains – 33%, Plateaus – 27%
(C) Plains – 43%, Mountains – 30%, Plateaus – 27%
(D) Plains – 45%, Mountains – 28%, Plateaus – 27%
Solution:
(C) Plains – 43%, Mountains – 30%, Plateaus – 27%.
Question-34
Which one is a renewable resource ?
(A) Iron-ore
(B) Petroleum products
(C) Coal
(D) Solar energy
Solution:
(D) Solar energy.
Question-35
Which place is related to the Earth Summit of 1992?
(A) Dhaka in Bangladesh
(B) New Delhi in India
(C) Tehran in Iran
(D) Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
Solution:
(D) Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.
Question-36
Which one is an example of private ownership of a resource?
(A) Community Hall
(B) Police Station
(C) Farm Land
(D) Post Office
Solution:
(C) Farm land.
Question-37
What is India’s national territorial water limit extension?
(A) 10 nautical mile
(B) 12 nautical mile
(C) 11 nautical mile
(D) 15nautical mile
Solution:
(B) 12 nautical mile.
Question-38
Which is example for potential resource?
(A) Thermal energy in Jharkhand
(B) Hydel power in Himalayan region
(C) Electricity in Northern Grid of India
(D) Nuclear energy in Maharashtra region
Solution:
(B) Hydel power in Himalayan region.
Question-39
(C) Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala
(D) Bihar, Bengal, Assam
Solution:
(B) Haryana, Punjab, Bihar .
Question-40
In which place is land degradation excess due to land mining?
(A) Punjab
(B) Haryana
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Jharkhand
Solution:
(D) Jharkhand.
Question-41
Which factor cannot be classified, as one of the factors of soil formation?
(A) Parent rock
(B) Running water
(C) Humus
(D) Industrialisation
Solution:
(D) Industrialisation.
Question-42
Which type of resources is iron-ore?
(A) Renewable
(B) Flow
(C) Biotic
(D) Non-renewable
Solution:
(D) Non-renewable.
Question-43
What caused land degradation in Punjab?
(A) Intensive cultivation
(B) Over irrigation
(C) Deforestation
(D) Overgrazing
Solution:
(A) Intensive cultivation.
Question-44
Where is terrace cultivation practiced?
(A) Punjab
(B) Haryana
(C) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(D) Uttaranchal
Solution:
(D) Uttaranchal.
Question-45
Where is Sukhomaijri located ?
(A) Uttaranchal
(B) Uttar Pradesh
(C) Haryana
(D) Andhra Pradesh
Solution:
(C) Haryana.
Question-46
Where has shelter belts stabilised sand dunes?
(A) Gujarat
(B) Haryana
(C) Rajasthan
(D) Punjab
Solution:
(C) Rajasthan.
Question-47
India has a wide variety of relief features, which are the most important resources. Justify the statement.
Solution:
India has a wide variety of relief features which includes mountains plains plateaus.
(i) plain land area is about 43% of the land area which provide facilities for agriculture industry.
(ii) Mountains account for 30% of the land area which provides facilities for tourism ecological aspects .It also ensures perennial flow of some rivers.
(iii) About 27% of the plateau region is considered as a storehouse for minerals.
Question-48
Give the differences between resource rich countries and resource poor countries.
Solution:
Resource Rich Countries
1.Resource rich countries are basically those which are rich in natural resources such as forest, water etc.
2.Eg:India has rich resource base but due to lack of technology most of it is potential
Resources Poor Countries
1.Resource poor countries are those, which have a poor resource base.
2.Eg. Japan with no resource base but they are rich in technological skills talents.
Question-49
What are the various stages of resources planning?
Solution:
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country which involves surveying mapping measurement of resources.
(ii) Evolving a planning structure with appropriate technology skills and institutions to set for implementing the resources development plans.
(iii) Matching the resources development plans with the overall nation development plans.
Question-50
What are the uses of resource planning ?
Solution:
(i) It reduces resource exploitation.
(ii) It keeps the environment pollution free.
(iii) Resources are limited, and thus it is required to conserve them for the future use.
(iv) It is essential for rapid economic development.
Question-51
What is sustainable economic development?
Solution:
Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment development in the present, should not compromise with the needs of the future generation.
Question-52
List the importance of natural resources.
Solution:
(i) They are the main source of our agricultural activities.
(ii) They provide the raw material for the industries.
(iii) All our commercial activities directly or indirectly depend upon them.
(iv) They are useful in maintaining the ecological balance.
Question-53
Give the resources on the basis of exhaustibility.
Solution:
The classification of resources on the basis of exhaustibility is:
(i) Renewable Resources – The resources that can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical mechanical processes.
(ii) Non – Renewable Resources – They occur over a very long geological time taking millions of years in their formation get exhausted with their use. For eg. minerals.
Question-54
Classify resources on the basis of origin.
Solution:
On the basis of origin resources are classified as:
(i) Biotic – They are obtained form Biosphere and have life such as flora fauna.
(ii) Abiotic – All those things which are composed of non-living things such as rocks metals etc.
Question-55
What is the inter-relationship between nature, technology institutions?
Solution:
Human beings interact with nature to fullfill his needs using the resources that are available. He also by transforms the natural stuff in to resources through technology also create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
Question-56
What are the methods adopted to solve the problems of land degradation ?
Solution:
1. Afforestation.
2. Proper management grazing land.
3. Planting of shelter belts in desert areas.
4. Control of overgrazing.
5. Stabilization of sand dunes by growing theory bushes.
6. Proper management of waste lands.
7. Control on mining activities.
8. Proper discharge disposal of effluents waster after treatment can reduce land degradation.
Question-57
Give a few activities which results in land – degradation.
Solution:
1. Deforestation in states like M.P. Orissa.
2. Overgrazing in the states of Punjab Haryana have cause land-degradation.
3. Mining quarrying have contributed a lot in land degradation as mining sites are abundant after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars.
4. Over irrigation in areas such as Punjab Haryana also leads to land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity alkalinity in soil.
5. Mineral processing like grinding of lime stone for cement industry generates huge quantity of dust in atmosphere after this dust settles down on land which stops percolation of water in soil.
6. Industrial effluents as wastes are a major source of land water pollution.
Question-58
List the resources on the basic of the status of development.
Solution:
The classification of resources on the basis of status of development is as follows:
(i) Potential Resources – Resources that are found in the region but have not been utilized. For eg: Western part of India has enormous potential for solar and wind energy which have not been properly utilized.
(ii) Developed Resources – Resources which are surveyed their quantity is determined for utilization, its development depends on technology level of their feasibility.
(iii) Stock Resources – Material in the environment which has the potential to satisfy human needs but due to lack of technology human are not able to utilize them. Eg – water is a compound of hydrogen oxygen they are the rich source of energy but due to lack of technology, we cannot use them.
(iv) Reserves – They are the subset of stock which can be put into use with the help of existing technological skills but their use has to not been started.
Question-59
Classify resources on the basis of ownership.
Solution:
Classification is as follows :
(i) Individual Resource – The resources that are owned privately by individuals such as a house is owned by an individual.
(ii) Community Owned Resources – The resources that are accessible to all the member of the society, eg. Public park.
(iii) National Resource – All the resources that belong to a nation such as forests, wildlife.
(iv) International Resource – There are international institutions which regulate some resources. For eg – the oceanic resources beyond 200kms. of exclusive economic zone belongs to open ocean no individual country can utilize these without the interference of international institutions.
Question-60
How are gullies formed?
Solution:
Gullies are ravines formed by rain water in areas devoid of green cover.
Question-61
What does resource planning stand for?
Solution:
Resource planning is the technique used for ensuring best use of the existing resources.
Question-62
Identify three factors responsible for soil formation.
Solution:
Relief, climate and nature of parent rock are responsible for soil formation.
Question-63
What is meant by waste land?
Solution:
Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas.
Question-64
Write about resource planning. What were Gandhiji’s views on resource conservation?
Solution:
Resource planning is a complex process, which involves:
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Gandhiji voiced his concern about resource conservation in the following words: “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed.” He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.
Question-65
What has significantly contributed to land degradation?
Solution:
Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying too have contributed significantly in land egradation. Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over-burdening. In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation. In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. In the states of Punjab, Haryana,western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.
Question-66
Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. Explain.
Solution:
It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth. The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes, which take place in the soil, are equally important. Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.
Question-67
Is black soil easy to work, in hot climate? Explain.
Solution:
The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.
More Resources for CBSE Class 10:

Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Physics
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Biology
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Chemistry
SST

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Forest and Wildlife Resource CBSE Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

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Forest and Wildlife Resource CBSE Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

Forest and Wildlife Resource NCERT Class 10 SST Geography Extra Questions

Question-1
What has caused the destruction and extinction of many species of animals and plant life?
Solution:
Neglect of our environment has led to the destruction and extinction of many species of animals and plant life.
Question-2
How are animal and plant life categorized?
Solution:
Animal and plant life can be categorized as follows
Normal Species Endangered Species Vulnerable Species Rare Species Endemic Species Extinct Species

You can also download NCERT Solutions Class 10 to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-3
What are the dangers we face due to depletion of forests?
Solution:
Depletion of forests causes a lot of danger. Water scarcity, drought and deforestation induced floods are some of the dangers. Drought and floods directly affect the poor. Therefore, forests are vital for the quality of life and environment in India.
Question-4
What is ‘enrichment plantation’?
Solution:
“Enrichment plantation” was carried out during the colonial period in India. When a particular species of trees which are commercially profitable are planted after the removal of other species in the area, it is called “enrichment plantation”.
Examples of “enrichment plantation” are
Teak trees planted in South India after cutting down natural forests Chirr Pine plantations which have replaced the Himalayan oak in the Himalayas
Question-5
Write a short note on the Himalayan Yew.
Solution:
The Himalayan Yew is a medicinal plant that is found in Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh. From the bark, needles, twigs and roots of this tree a chemical compound called ‘taxol’ is extracted. This chemical is used to make drugs that are used to cure certain types of cancers, but the species is becoming extinct due to over-exploitation.
Question-6
What are benefits of conserving forests?
Solution:
Conservation of forests preserves the ecological diversity and natural resources like water, air and soil. It preserves the genetic diversity of plants. Conservation of forest and wildlife also help in the growth of animal species and in their breeding.
More Resources for CBSE Class 10:

Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Physics
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Biology
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Chemistry
Forest and Wildlife Resource

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Development CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

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Development CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Development CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Development CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions
Question-1
Why is per capital income considered as an important criterion for development?
Solution:
Per capital income is considered an important criterion for development as without financial resources no country can provide facilities for education or health services.

You can also download NCERT Solutions Class 10 Maths to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
Expansion of retail chains owned by big industrialists.
Solution:
Growth of high salary high tech jobs adds to national income but does not help growth in over all employment opportunities for different grades of labourers. Expansion of retail chains by big business houses creates unemployment among the existing small scale traders and vendors.

Question-3
Increase in total income of a country may or may not lead to greater welfare of the masses. on this.
Solution:
Increase in total income of a country can be beneficial if the increase is evenly spread over different social groups. However if only the rich get richer and the poor remain where they were, income growth does not lead to growth in social welfare. Growth of high tech jobs has made things better off for only a select group of people in India. The great majority of people specially in the rural sector have remained untouched by the boom in national economy.

Question-4
Money alone cannot provide all that makes life worth living. Discuss this statement.
Solution:
Money by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of total welfare. For example money incomes may be high in an industrial colony but the environment may be polluted. There may be insufficient provisions for health care. The educational facilities for children may be expensive. In the absence of these facilities, high money incomes alone would not be enough.

Question-5
How can development be made sustainable? Illustrate with examples from everyday life.
Solution:
Development can be made sustainable if the existing resources are used in a planned manner. Enough must be left for the coming generations. Emphasis should be developing renewable sources of energy and recycling of metals.

Question-6
Give suggestions for ensuring a better distribution of existing water resources within the country.
Solution:
Ground water is under serious threat of over use in many parts of the country. Overuse is common in parts of country like Punjab and Western U.P which are agriculturally prosperous regions. We should use only as much ground water as is replenished by rain. Rain water harvesting, putting reasonable restrictions on drilling of wells, and restricting use of water for all and for all times to come.

Question-7
Which attribute is considered important for comparing different countries? Does it provide the whole picture?
Solution:
The attribute considered important for comparing development over different countries is ‘per capita income’. This however provides no information about the distribution of national income over various groups of people in the country.

Question-8
Give one example of environmental degradation.
Solution:
Scarcity of water is once example of the ill effects of environmental degradation.

Question-9
Discuss the disparities in literacy rates in India.
Solution:
There are wide disparities in literacy rates for Males and Females in rural population. In Uttar Pradesh for example the literacy rate for Males is 52% while for females it is as low as 19%.

Question-10
What should be the main criteria of development?
Solution:
Development that leads to environmental degradation can be a curse for the entire planet and not just the polluting country. Excessive emissions from automobiles can lead to global warming endangering the very existence of a large number sea ports across the world.

Question-11
Why is per capital income considered as an important criterion for development?
Solution:
Per capital income is considered an important criterion for development as without financial resources no country can provide facilities for education or health services.

Question-12
How can development be made sustainable? Illustrate with examples from everyday life.
Solution:
Development can be made sustainable if the existing resources are used in a planned manner. Enough must be left for the coming generations. Emphasis should be developing renewable sources of energy and recycling of metals.

Question-13
Give one example of environmental degradation.
Solution:
Scarcity of water is once example of the ill effects of environmental degradation.

Question-14
Discuss the disparities in literacy rates in India.
Solution:
There are wide disparities in literacy rates for Males and Females in rural population. In Uttar Pradesh for example the literacy rate for Males is 52% while for females it is as low as 19%.

Question-15
What should be the main criteria of development?
Solution:
Development that leads to environmental degradation can be a curse for the entire planet and not just the polluting country. Excessive emissions from automobiles can lead to global warming endangering the very existence of a large number sea ports across the world.

More Resources for CBSE Class 10:

Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Physics
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Biology
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Chemistry
NCERT Solutions

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Sectors of the Indian Economy CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

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Sectors of the Indian Economy CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Sectors of the Indian Economy CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Question-1
Why is the primary sector called as such?
Solution:
The primary sector is called as such because it produces goods exploiting natural recourses. Some of the activities of this sector are agriculture , dairy, fishing and forestry.

You can also download Maths Class 10 to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
Mention a few activities under the secondary and tertiary sectors.
Solution:
Some of the activities of the secondary sector are textile factories , sugar mills, brick kilns, industries manufacturing automobiles, electronics and electrical goods, and construction companies. Since this sector is associated with different kinds of industries it is also called the industrial sector.
Some activities of the tertiary sector are transport, storage, communication, banking, and trade .Since these activities generate services rather than goods, the tertiary sector is also called the service sector.
Question-3
What is called the ‘final goods’?
Solution:
The goods that reaches the consumer is called the final goods. For example the value of the biscuits at Rs. 20/- per packet includes the price of wheat, grinding charges, manufacturing charges, transportation, storage charges and selling charges. So only the value of the final goods (biscuits) should be taken into account for evaluation.
Question-4
Expand the following:
(i) GDP
(ii) NREGA 2005.
Solution:
(i) GDP stands for GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT.
(ii) NREGA 2005 stands for National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005.
Question-5
What is GDP?
Solution:
The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of that sector for that year. The sum production in all the 3 sectors gives what is called the GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) of a country. The GDP only determines the economic strength of a country.
Question-6
Mention some of the Acts that Companies in the Organised sector have to follow.
Solution:
Some of the Acts that Companies in the Organised sector have to follow are :-
(i) Factories Act,
(ii) Minimum Wages Act,
(iii) Payment of Gratuity Act,
(iv) Shops and Establishments Act.
Question-7
Differentiate between the Public and Private sectors.
Solution:
In the public sector, the government owns most of the assets and provides all the services. In the private sector, ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the hands of private individuals or companies.
Question-8
Write a short note on the Planning commission.
Solution:
The Planning Commission is a body set up by the Central government , that chalks out programmes to tackle unemployment and related problems in addition to its major task of planning the economy of the nation.
The following are some of the findings of the Planning Commission.
1. 20 lakh jobs can be created in the education sector alone, by starting more schools and colleges in rural and semi-rural areas. This in turn will educate a multitude of children, who will eventually become employable.
2. 35 lakh people could find employment if the tourism industry was developed in every state.
3. Rural craft industry could be boosted along with the tourism industry giving employment to thousands of rural unemployed citizens.
4. Development of the IT services could generate lakhs of jobs for the urban unemployed.
Question-9
The rising importance of the tertiary sector in production in the present times. Discuss.
Solution:
Over the past 30 years, while production has increased in all the 3 sectors , it has increased the most in the tertiary sector.
The reasons for the fast development of the tertiary sector in India are as follows:-
1. The necessity for ‘basic services’ like hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, administrative offices, defense, transport and banking services have increased with the increase in population.
2. The development in the Agricultural and Industrial sectors has increased the need for services such as transportation, storage and trade.
3. As the income of the people increased the demand for services in tourism, retailing, catering and elite education also increased.
4. With higher income people have started traveling long distances for work and education, resulting in the need for increased services in the transport and communication sector.
Question-10
How do we create more employment in the agricultural sector?
Solution:
More employment can be created in the Agricultural sector if the government takes the following steps.
1. Loans could be given to farmers to dig wells to irrigate their land.
2. Seeds and fertilizers could be subsidized.
3. Dams can be built to irrigate dry areas.
4. Transport facilities could be increased.
5. Storage facilities could be provided.
6. Industries and other service related companies could be relocated in rural areas so that the underemployed people of the agricultural sector could find work.
7. More schools could be started to educate the rural population to help them become employable, as underemployment is prevalent among farmers.
Question-11
What can be done to protect the interest of the workers in the unorganised sector?
Solution:
The unorganized sector comprises mainly of workers in small scale industries, casual workers in the construction trade and transport sectors and those who work as street vendors, head-load workers, garment makers and rag pickers. Protection and support for the unorganised sector workers is very necessary for both economic and social development. The government laws protecting these workers should be strictly implemented and those who exploit these workers should be punished severely.
Question-12
Discuss the historical changes in the three economic sectors.
Solution:
As we look through the pages of history we can see that a few hundred years ago the Primary sector (Agricultural sector) was most predominant in the world.
Slowly as methods of farming improved and surplus food was produced man channelized his energy towards manufacturing of goods. Industries flourished and soon the Secondary sector gained prominence. The Agricultural sector also flourished due to the invention and manufacture of modern agricultural tools.
In this present era with the rising world population and rising income, the Tertiary sector (Service Sector) is gaining prominence. This is already evident in the developed nations and the change will soon be seen in the developing nations also.
Sectors-of-the-Indian-Economy-CBSE-Class-10-Economics-Solutions-LearnCBSE.in[/caption]
More Resources for CBSE Class 10:

Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Physics
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Biology
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Chemistry

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Money and Credit CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

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Money and Credit CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Money and Credit CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Question-1
What are the transactions involving money ?
Solution:
The transactions involving money are :
1) Goods are being bought and sold with the use of money.
2) Services are being exchanged with money.
3) Goods are also bought with a promise to pay money later.
4) Money is sometimes paid as advance with the promise of delivery of goods later.

You can also download NCERT Maths Class 10 to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
What were the objects that were used before the use of currency?
Solution:
As the need for a medium of exchange (currency) became a necessity different materials were used as currency. Initially Indians used grains and cattle as money. Before the introduction of coins, a variety of objects was used as money. Thereafter came the use of metallic coins — gold, silver, copper coins — a phase which continued well into the last century.
Question-3
What are Demand Deposits?
Solution:
People with extra money deposit it in the banks by opening a bank account in their name. Banks accept the deposits and also pay an interest rate on the deposits. In this way people’s money is safe with the banks and it earns an interest.
People also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require. Since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand, these deposits are called demand deposits.
Question-4
What is a cheque?
Solution:
A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from the person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been made.
Question-5
What is Collateral ?
Solution:
Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (such as land, building, vehicle, livestock, deposits with banks) and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid.
Question-6
What is called the ‘terms of deposit’ ?
Solution:
Interest rate, collateral and documentation requirement, and the mode of repayment together comprise what is called the terms of credit. The terms of credit vary substantially from one credit arrangement to another. They may vary depending on the nature of the lender and the borrower.
Question-7
How do cooperatives function?
Solution:
Cooperatives have many members. It accepts deposits from its members. With these
deposits as collateral, the Cooperative obtains a large loan from the bank. These funds are used to provide loans to its members. Once these loans are repaid, another round of lending takes place
Question-8
Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the countries development . Discuss.
Solution:
Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s development. The various types of loans or credits can be grouped as formal sector loans and informal sector loans. Among the former are loans from banks and cooperatives. The informal lenders include moneylenders, traders, employers, relatives and friends.
Banks and cooperatives give loans on a lesser interest rate than the informal sector. But bank loans require proper documents and collateral. Absence of collateral is one of the major reasons why bank loans are not available to small farmers and people who wish to start small industries.
Compared to the formal lenders, most of the informal lenders charge a much higher interest on loans. Thus, the cost to the borrower of informal loans is much higher. Higher cost of borrowing means a larger part of the earnings of the borrowers is used to repay the loan.
For these reasons, banks and cooperative societies need to lend more to the poorer section of people . This would lead to higher incomes and many people could then borrow cheaply for a variety of needs. They could grow crops, do business, set up small-scale industries etc. They could set up new industries or trade in goods.
At present, it is the richer households who receive credit from formal sources whereas the poor have to depend on the informal sources. It is essential that the total formal sector credit increases so that the dependence on the more expensive informal credit becomes less. Also, the poor should get a much greater share of formal loans from banks, cooperative societies etc. Both these steps are important for development.
Question-9
What is the barter system and double coincidence of wants?
Solution:
In the olden days, when modern currency was not in vogue, people had to sell and buy each others commodities. This was called the barter system. For instance if a shoe manufacturer wants to buy wheat, he has to find a farmer who wants to buy his shoes in exchange for the wheat. That is, both parties have to agree to sell and buy each others commodities. This is known as double coincidence of wants. In a barter system where goods are directly exchanged without the use of money, double coincidence of wants is an essential feature.
Question-10
What are ‘demand deposits’?
Solution:
People need only some money for their day-to-day needs. So, people deposit the extra money with the banks by opening a bank account in their name. Banks accept the deposits and also pay an interest rate on the deposits. In this way people’s money is safe with the banks and it earns an interest.
People also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require. Since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand, these deposits are called demand deposits.
Question-11
Write a short note on ‘cheques’.
Solution:
A deposit in a Bank offers the customer the facility of issuing cheques. A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from the person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been made. The recipient of the cheque can deposit it in his own account in his bank. The money is transferred from one bank account to another bank account in a couple of days. The transaction is complete without any payment of cash. This is a safe mode of transferring money avoiding the possibility of any theft.
Question-12
Write about the functioning of Krishak Cooperative society.
Solution:
Krishak Cooperative functions in a village not very far away from Sonpur. It has 2300 farmers as members. The Cooperative accepts deposits from its members. Using the deposit as collateral, the Cooperative obtains a large loan from the bank. The loan amount received from the bank is used as funds to provide loans to the members.
Once the members repay the loans the amount is repaid to the bank and a fresh loan is taken from the bank. The Cooperative provides loans to its members for the purchase of agricultural implements, loans for cultivation and agricultural trade, fishery loans, loans for construction of houses and for a variety of other expenses.
Money-and-Credit-CBSE-Class-10-Economics-Solutions-Chapter-3[/caption]
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Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Physics
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Biology
Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Chemistry

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Globalisation and the Indian Economy CBSE Class 10 Economics

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Globalisation and the Indian Economy CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Globalisation and the Indian Economy NCERT Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Globalisation and the Indian Economy CBSE Class 10 Economics
Question-1
What are the factors that have enabled globalisation ?
Solution:
Rapid improvement in transportation and communication technology and the liberalisation of trade restrictions and foreign investment have been the major factors that has enabled the globalisation process.
The dramatic improvement in transportation technology has played a vital role in faster delivery of goods across long distances at lower costs and in the movement of people from one country to another in a short time. As the basis of gloalisation is foreign trade movement of goods and people are vital for globalisation.
Information and communication technology (or IT in short) has also played a major role in globalisation. Many MNCs are service based companies therefore the transfer of information is very vital to them. Computers , internet facilities, telegraph, telephones mobile phones, and fax are used to contact one another around the world, to access information instantly, and to communicate from remote areas.
Liberalisation of foreign trade and investment policy has speeded up the globalization process. During the end of the 20th century, India removed trade barriers and foreign goods flooded the Indian market. Barriers on foreign investment were also removed to a large extent enabling many MNCs to set up their factories in India.

You can also download NCERT Solutions Class 10 to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
Write a short note on WTO.
Solution:
World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an international body which aims at liberalising international trade. It was started at the initiative of the developed countries.
i. WTO establishes rules regarding international trade,
ii. It sees that these rules are obeyed by the member countries,
iii 149 countries of the world are currently members of the WTO (2006).
WTO Head Quarters is situated in Geneva, Switzerland. It was established in the year 1995. There are 151 member countries in WTO and its budget for the year 2007 is 182 million Swiss francs.
The functions of the WTO are as follows:
• Administering WTO trade agreements.
• Forum for trade negotiations.
• Handling trade disputes.
• Monitoring national trade policies.
• Technical assistance and training for developing countries.
• Cooperation with other international organizations.
Question-3
What are the positive impacts of globalisation in India ?
Solution:
The positive impact of globalisation in India has been tremendous.
1. Greater competition among producers resulting from Globalisation is a great advantage to consumers as there is greater choice before them. Consumers now enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products.
2. Due to globalisation many MNCs have increased their investments in India. This means thousands of people are getting highly paid jobs and, enjoy much higher standards of living than was possible earlier.
3. Local companies supplying raw materials, to these industries have prospered.
4. Top Indian companies have benefit from increased competition. They have invested in newer technology and production methods and raised their production standards.
5. Some Indian companies have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies.
Large Indian companies have emerged as multinationals like Tata Motors Globalisation has also created new opportunities for Indian companies providing services, particularly in the IT field. Services such as data entry, accounting, and administrative tasks, are now being done cheaply in India and exported to the developed countries. This has generated thousands of jobs.
Question-4
Mention a few negative impacts of globalisation in India.
Solution:
There has also been a negative impact of globalisation in India. Globalisation has posed major challenges to a large number of small producers.
Globalisation which resulted from liberalisation of Foreign Trade policies allowed the import of electronic goods at a very cheap cost. Local producers of electronic goods were not able to meet with this challenge. MNCs flooded the market with quality products at a cheap price. Local producer were not able to compete with this and were put to hardship as their goods do not have a market.
Another negative factor to globalisation is the lower wages that are given to labourers. In order to compete in the world market, exporters try and cut labour costs and workers are denied their fair share of benefits as manufacturers are always on the look out for cheaper labour .
Question-5
Differentiate between a ‘permanent worker ’ and a ‘temporary worker’.
Solution:
A ‘permanent worker’ is entitled to health insurance, provident fund, overtime at a double rate. The permanent worker is also eligible for paid leave and has fixed working hours. Whereas a ‘ temporary worker’ earns less than a permanent worker . He does not enjoy any of the benefits a permanent worker is entitled for. A day off from work means no wage and there are no fixed timings of work. The temporary worker can be dismissed from work any time.
Question-6
Write a short note on MNCs with an example.
Solution:
A MNC or Multinational Corporation is a company that owns or controls production in more than one nation. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can get cheap labour and other resources. The cost of production is reduced considerably due to cheap labour and the MNCs earn great profits.
MNCs not only sell their finished products globally, the goods and services are produced globally. Because of this global production , today’s consumer has a wide choice of goods and services at a very reasonable price.
Cognizant Technology Solutions is a MNC which provides end-to-end Solutions in Consulting, Application Value Management, Application Development, Re-engineering, and Platform Consolidation across all major technologies.
The company’s Head Quarters is in New Jersey, USA.
The Company has Offices in the following countries.
(i) Canada
(ii) United Kingdom
(iii) Germany
(iv) Switzerland
(v) France
(vi) Malaysia
(vii) Singapore
(viii) Australia
(ix) China
(x) India
Question-7
What is meant by interlinking production across countries?
Solution:
MNCs are exerting a strong influence on production at distant locations. As a result, production in these widely dispersed locations is getting interlinked.
MNCs look into 4 major criteria before they set up production in any place.
1. The factory or company should be close to the markets.
2. Skilled and unskilled labour should be available at low costs.
3. Availability of other factors of production should be assured. (eg. Infrastructure)
4. Local Government policies should be in their interests.
When the above conditions are to their satisfaction MNCs set up factories and offices for production in different countries thus interlinking production across countries.
At times, MNCs set up production jointly with some of the local companies in other countries . Then the local company benefits in 2 ways from this joint venture. Money for additional investments, like buying new machines and the introduction of the latest technology for production is available to the local producer thus interlinking production across countries.
Question-8
IT in globalisation – Discuss.
Solution:
Information and communication technology (or IT in short) has played a major role in globalisation. Production of services has spread rapidly across countries due to the growth in Information technology.
Many MNCs are service based companies therefore the transfer of information is very vital to them. Computers , internet facilities, telegraph, telephones mobile phones, and fax are used to contact one another around the world, to access information instantly, and to communicate from remote areas. This has been facilitated by satellite communication devices. Internet also allows us to send instant electronic mail (e-mail) and talk (voice-mail) across the world at negligible costs.
Question-9
What are the factors that have enabled globalisation?
Solution:
The dramatic improvement in transportation technology has played a vital role in globalisation, due to faster delivery of goods across long distances at lower costs and in the movement of people from one country to another in a short time.
Information and communication technology has also played a major role in globalisation. Many MNCs are service based companies therefore the transfer of information is very vital to them. Computers, internet facilities, telegraph, telephones mobile phones, and fax are used to contact one another around the world, to access information instantly, and to communicate from remote areas.
Liberalisation of foreign trade and investment policy has speeded up the globalization process.
Question-10
What are the positive impacts of globalisation in India?
Solution:
The positive impact of globalisation in India has been tremendous. Greater competition among producers resulting from Globalisation is a great advantage to consumers as there is greater choice before them. Consumers now enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products.
Due to globalisation many MNCs have increased their investments in India. This means thousands of people are getting highly paid jobs and, enjoy much higher standards of living than was possible earlier.
Globalisation has also created new opportunities for Indian companies providing services, particularly in the IT field. Services such as data entry, accounting, and administrative tasks, are now being done cheaply in India and exported to the developed countries. This has generated thousands of jobs.
Question-11
Mention a few negative impacts of globalisation in India.
Solution:
There has also been a negative impact of globalisation in India. Globalisation has posed major challenges to a large number of small producers.
Globalisation which resulted from liberalisation of Foreign Trade policies allowed the import of electronic goods at a very cheap cost. Local producers of electronic goods were not able to meet with this challenge. MNCs flooded the market with quality products at a cheap price. Local producer were not able to compete with this and were put to hardship as their goods do not have a market.
Another negative factor to globalisation is the lower wages that are given to labourers. In order to compete in the world market, exporters try and cut labour costs and workers are denied their fair share of benefits as manufacturers are always on the look out for cheaper labour .
Question-12
IT in globalisation – Discuss.
Solution:
Information and communication technology (or IT in short) has played a major role in globalisation. Production of services has spread rapidly across countries due to the growth in Information technology.
Many MNCs are service based companies therefore the transfer of information is very vital to them. Computers , internet facilities, telegraph, telephones mobile phones, and fax are used to contact one another around the world, to access information instantly, and to communicate from remote areas. This has been facilitated by satellite communication devices. Internet also allows us to send instant electronic mail (e-mail) and talk (voice-mail) across the world at negligible costs.
Globalisation-and-the-Indian-Economy-CBSE-Class-10-Economics-Solutions[/caption]
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Consumer Right CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

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Consumer Right CBSE Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Consumer Right NCERT Class 10 Economics Extra Questions With Solutions

Question-1
What is Consumer Exploitation?
Solution:
Supplying goods having under weight and under measurement, sub – standard quality, duplicate articles, adulteration, impurity, unsafe articles, false information, unsatisfactory after sale service and high prices is termed as consumer exploitation.

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Question-2
What is the need for Consumer Awareness?
Solution:
Consumer awareness is needed to protect the consumers from the exploitation. If safe guards their interests. It removes their ignorance, unawareness and illiteracy about the goods consumer awareness provides the consumer the knowledge of their rights where can be claimed to redress grievances.
Question-3
When is the world consumer rights day celebrated?
Solution:
“World Consumers Rights Day” is celebrated on March 15 every year.
Question-4
Why was consumer Protection Act 1986 exacted?
Solution:
Consumer Protection Act, 1986 was exacted to safe guard the interests of consumer.
Question-5
Where should the consumers go to get justice ?
Solution:
Consumer can go to the District Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission, State Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission or the National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission, to get justice.
Question-6
Many consumers who are exploited do not seek redressal. Why?
Solution:
Consumer do not seek redressal becoming the process is cumbersome, expensive and time consuming.
A Redressal case requires …
(a) engaging a lawyer.
(b) filing and attending the court proceedings.
(c) the non availability of cash memos as cash memos are not issued for most purchases.
(d) evidence is not easy to gather.
(e) most purchases in the market are small retail sales.
(f) the existing laws also are not very clear on the issue of compensation to consumers.
(g) injured by defective products.
Question-7
What do we mean by consumer rights?
Solution:
A consumer is a person who buys a product, he is also called the end user.
When a product is sold there are certain rules and regulations the maker and the seller have to follow. These rule and regulations are not followed in several cases. When these rules are not followed the consumer has a right to fight for justice. This is called Consumer rights.
Question-8
How does exploitation in marketplace take place?
Solution:
Exploitation in the marketplace happens in various ways.
1. Traders indulge in unfair trade practices.
2. Shopkeepers weigh less than what they should.
3. Traders add charges that were not mentioned in the product.
4. Adulterated/defective goods are sold.
Question-9
What are the difficulties a consumer faces when he wants to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitatio
Solution:
The consumer redressal process is cumbersome, expensive and time consuming.
The redressal process requires the following
engaging a lawyer filing and attending the court proceedings cash memos evidence, if the customer is injured by defective products.
Engaging a lawyer is costly and court proceedings take time. Another problem the consumer faces is the non availability of cash memos as cash memos are not issued for most purchases. Evidence is also not easy to gather as most purchases in the market are small retail sales. More over, the existing laws also are not very clear on the issue of compensation to consumers.
Question-10
Write a brief note the Bureau of Indian Standards.
Solution:
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) certification marks scheme was also introduced by the government of India.
ISI and Agmark seals were made compulsory for many products.
These logos or seals and certification help consumers get assured of quality while purchasing the goods and services. The Bureau of Indian Standards monitors and issue these certificates to producers to use their logos provided they follow certain quality standards.
It is mandatory on the part of the producers of LPG cylinders, food colours and additives, cement, packaged drinking water, to get certified by organisation.
“Agmark” seal is mandatory for certain food articles such as edible oils, spices and honey.
Question-11
What are consumer forums?
Solution:
The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organisations locally known as consumer forums or consumer protection councils. They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court and exercise their right to represent their case or grievance in the consumer courts.
On many occasions, these consumer forums also represent individual consumers in the consumer courts. These voluntary organisations also receive financial support from the government for creating awareness among the people.
Question-12
What the information a consumer has a right to know when he is buying a product?
Solution:
The information a consumer has a right to know when he is buying a product are:-
1. Details about ingredients used
2. Price
3. Batch number
4. Date of manufacture
5. Expiry date
6. Address of the manufacturer.
7. Directions for proper use
8. Information relating to side effects (if it is medicine)
9. Instructions for washing (if it is garments)
This is necessary for the consumer can then complain and ask for compensation or replacement if the product proves to be defective in any manner and not according the information provided on the product.
Question-13
What is Consumer Rights?
Solution:
A consumer is a person who buys a product; he is also called the end user. The consumer has a lot of rights that he can demand when he is buying a product. Let us see what rights a consumer can demand.
When a product is sold there are certain rules and regulations the maker and the seller have to follow. These rule and regulations are not followed in several cases. When these rules are not followed the consumer has a right to fight for justice. This is called Consumer rights.
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Tsunami The Killer Wave CBSE Class 10 Disaster Management Extra Questions

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Tsunami The Killer Wave CBSE Class 10 Disaster Management Extra Questions

Tsunami The  Killer Wave CBSE Class 10 SST Disaster Management Extra Questions

Question-1
What is a Tsunami?
Solution:
The term tsunami has been derived from the Japanese term ‘Tsu’ meaning harbour, and ‘nami’ meaning waves. Thus tsunami means ‘harbour waves’. Under water earth quakes and other disturbances cause these killer waves.

You can also download NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Maths to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
Give a brief description of the tsunami that hit the Indian shores on 26th December, 2004.
Solution:
An undersea earthquake occurred on December 26, 2004, with an epicenter off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The earthquake triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most of the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. 225,000 people were killed in eleven countries.
Question-3
What are the precautions people living in tsunami prone areas should take?
Solution:
People living in tsunami prone areas should ensure that they live at a safe distance from the coast line. They should elevate their houses so that only a minimum damage is caused to property in the event of a tsunami.
They should live in houses that can with stand the onslaught of the killer waves.
A proper drainage system should be provided to ensure that there is no flooding of the surrounding areas.
People should have access to radio and TV, so that can be informed about impending danger. The most important thing is to follow the instructions given during emergency.
Question-4
What are the precautions people on land should take when tsunami warnings are given?
Solution:
When a tsunami warning is sounded, the whole family should immediately shift to a safer place. People should move to the upper floors of a multi-storied building. They should have disaster supplies kit with them.
People who have cattle should take them along. People should stay away from rivers that flow into the sea as the sea water will rush inland through these rivers.
They should listen to the radio or TV for the latest up date on the situation.
They should leave low-lying coastal areas and head towards the interior.
Question-5
State preparedness measures that should be taken before a tsunami.
Solution:
As tsunamis are natural disasters and cannot be prevented, the next best thing one can do is be prepared for the eventuality and ensure the safety all the people.
Tsunami prone areas can be identified by the government. People living in these areas should be educated about tsunamis. They should be informed about the evacuation routes in case a tsunami hits the coast.
Mock evacuation drills should be conducted periodically so that the people are aware of it.
The government should make arrangements for sufficient provision during emergency.
The people in these tsunami prone areas should know how to contact their friends or relatives who live in risk-free zones, in the event of a tsunami.
Question-6
What is a tsunami? Give a brief description of the tsunami that hit the Indian shores on 26th December , 2004.
Solution:
The term tsunami has been derived from the Japanese term ‘Tsu’ meaning harbour, and ‘nami’ meaning waves. Thus tsunami means ‘harbour waves’. Under water earth quakes and other disturbances cause these killer waves.
An undersea earthquake occurred on December 26, 2004, with an epicenter off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The earthquake triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most of the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. 225,000 people were killed in eleven countries.
Question-7
What are the precautions people living in tsunami prone areas should take?
Solution:
People living in tsunami prone areas should ensure that they live at a safe distance from the coast line. They should elevate their houses so that only a minimum damage is caused to property in the event of a tsunami.
They should live in houses that can with stand the onslaught of the killer waves.
A proper drainage system should be provided to ensure that there is no flooding of the surrounding areas.
People should have access to radio and TV, so that can be informed about impending danger. The most important thing is to follow the instructions given during emergency.
Question-8
What are the precautions people on land should take when tsunami warnings are given?
Solution:
When a tsunami warning is sounded, the whole family should immediately shift to a safer place. People should move to the upper floors of a multi-storied building. They should have disaster supplies kit with them.
People who have cattle should take them along. People should stay away from rivers that flow into the sea as the sea water will rush inland through these rivers.
They should leave low-lying coastal areas and head towards the interior.
They should listen to the radio or TV for the latest up date on the situation.
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Survival Skills Disaster Management CBSE Class 10 Extra Questions

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Survival Skills Disaster Management CBSE Class 10 Extra Questions

Survival Skills Disaster Management CBSE Class 10 Extra Questions With Solutions

Question-1
What Solution do you give for dehydration?
Solution:
An Oral dehydration Solution prepared by dissolving a pinch of salt and a tea-spoon of sugar in a glass of water has to be given to a person who has been dehydrated.

You can also download Maths NCERT Solutions Class 10 to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
what are the 3 major factors to be planned for a rescue operation to be successful?
Solution:
Rescue Operations have to be planned well to be effective.
The 3 major factors to be planned during a rescue operation are ….
Man-power
Rescue equipment
Method of rescue.
Question-3
Solution:
Infra –red cameras; acoustic equipment and Bio- radars are 3 advanced equipments used to find out trapped victims.
Question-4
What are the first-aid measures to be taken when a people is inflicted with burn injuries?
Solution:
A burn is an injury caused to the skin when it comes in contact with fire; steam; hot liquid; hot metal; electricity or harmful chemicals.
While administering first aid for a burn injury the first thing a person should do is to immerse the burnt area in cool water. Remove restricting clothing before a blister forms.
One should then cover the burnt area with a dry sterile cloth.
In case the victim himself is on fire, then the victim should be rolled down and covered with a blanket.
The person administering first-aid for a burn injury has to be careful not to apply any pressure on the area. Attempt should not be made to remove any material stuck on the burnt area. Oil or any other ointment should not be applied on the area.
Question-5
What should be done in case of bleeding?
Solution:
Cuts, scraps and punctures can result in bleeding.
Pressure should be applied on the bleeding spot to stop the bleeding. The patient should be made to raise the injured part above the level of the heart so that bleeding reduces. The wound should be bandaged once heavy bleeding stops so that the exposed are is not infected and further bleeding is restricted.
Question-6
What should be done in the event of a dog bite and frost bite?
Solution:
Dog Bite
The first thing that has to be done when a person is bitten by a dog is to wipe the dog’s saliva and clean the wound thoroughly. The person giving first aid should be careful a not to come in contact with the saliva. The area that was bitten has to be covered with a dry sterile cloth after it has been washed. The patient has to be taken to the hospital immediately for further treatment.
FrostBite
Frost bites occur when the body tissues freeze after exposure to very low temperature
First the frostbitten areas should be covered with warm hands. The affected areas can be immersed in warm water. Then the area should be covered with warm material.
One should be careful not to rub the affected area with ice crystals. The patient should not be allowed to walk and one should ensure that any ensuing blisters should not be broken.
Question-7
What are the duties of the Rescuer and the principles a rescuer should follow while assessing the area of disaster.
Solution:
The first duty of a rescuer is to assess the area of disaster. This would save time and make the operation more effective. The rescuer should know the extent of the damage, how to approach the area where the disaster has taken place and all other details pertaining to the disaster. He should also be aware if there is a possibility of further disaster in that particular area. The rescuer should gather all the necessary information from the local people
Principles a rescuer should follow while assessing the area of disaster is to visit the place and get first hand information of the place before beginning the rescue operation. He should listen to all the information that is available from all sources.
The Rescuer should personally feel convinced that he can carry out the operation in spite of the dangers involved in the rescue operation.
Question-8
What are the first-aid measures to be taken when a people is inflicted with burn injuries?
Solution:
A burn is an injury caused to the skin when it comes in contact with fire; steam; hot liquid; hot metal; electricity or harmful chemicals.
While administering first aid for a burn injury the first thing a person should do is to immerse the burnt area in cool water. Remove restricting clothing before a blister forms.
One should then cover the burnt area with a dry sterile cloth.
In case the victim himself is on fire, then the victim should be rolled down and covered with a blanket.
The person administering first-aid for a burn injury has to be careful not to apply any pressure on the area. Attempt should not be made to remove any material stuck on the burnt area. Oil or any other ointment should not be applied on the area.
Question-9
What should be done in the event of a dog bite and frost bite?
Solution:
Dog Bite
The first thing that has to be done when a person is bitten by a dog is to wipe the dog’s saliva and clean the wound thoroughly. The person giving first aid should be careful a not to come in contact with the saliva. The area that was bitten has to be covered with a dry sterile cloth after it has been washed. The patient has to be taken to the hospital immediately for further treatment.
FrostBite
Frost bites occur when the body tissues freeze after exposure to very low temperature
First the frostbitten areas should be covered with warm hands. The affected areas can be immersed in warm water. Then the area should be covered with warm material.
One should be careful not to rub the affected area with ice crystals. The patient should not be allowed to walk and one should ensure that any ensuing blisters should not be broken.
Question-10
What are the duties of the Rescuer and the principles a rescuer should follow while assessing the area of disaster.
Solution:
The first duty of a rescuer is to assess the area of disaster. This would save time and make the operation more effective. The rescuer should know the extent of the damage, how to approach the area where the disaster has taken place and all other details pertaining to the disaster. He should also be aware if there is a possibility of further disaster in that particular area. The rescuer should gather all the necessary information from the local people
The Rescuer should personally feel convinced that he can carry out the operation in spite of the dangers involved in the rescue operation.
Principles a rescuer should follow while assessing the area of disaster is to visit the place and get first hand information of the place before beginning the rescue operation. He should listen to all the information that is available from all sources.
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More Resources for CBSE Class 10:

Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Physics
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Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Chemistry
Forest and Wildlife Resource

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Alternative Communication System Disaster Management CBSE Extra Questions

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Alternative Communication System Disaster Management CBSE Extra Questions

Alternative Communication System Disaster Management CBSE Class 10 Extra Questions With Solutions

Question-1
Why do Rescue and relief operations depend on an efficient communication system ?
Solution:
A well established communication system is very essential during a disaster. People have to be informed of impending disasters and they have to be given instructions to meet the disaster with least casualty.
Rescue and relief operations depend a great deal on an efficient communication system as people have to be informed of impending disasters and they have to be given instructions to meet the disaster with least casualty.

You can also download Class 10 Maths NCERT Solutions to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Question-2
What is PSTN?
Solution:
Public Switched Telephone Network – PSTN – is the most popular means of communication today. The PSTN connects all government and private offices, police stations, fire stations, hospitals and a majority of homes and business places by transmitting and receiving voices, fax and data.
Question-3
Mention the different modes of emergency communication.
Solution:
The different modes of emergency communication are ………
Radio communication
(a) Wireless radio communication network
(b) Amateur radio or HAM
Satellite based communication system
(a) Geo- stationary orbit satellites
(b) Asynchronous orbit satellites
(i) Observation satellite
(ii) Science satellite
(iii) Global positioning systems satellites.
Question-4
Write a short note on wireless communication network.
Solution:
Wireless radio communication network comprises of electromagnetic waves or radio waves that are propagated by an antenna. Radio waves have different frequencies and by tuning a radio receiver to a specific frequency one can receive the required signals.
Band frequencies.
Very low frequency Low frequency Medium frequency High frequency Very high frequency Ultra high frequency Super high frequency Extremely high frequency
High frequency bands can travel across the world. This band the radio waves are reflected from the ionosphere.
Ultra high frequency bands are used in wireless walkie / talkie sets.
Question-5
Write a short note on HAM.
Solution:
There are 15,000 licensed HAM radio operators in India. HAM radio operators are known as Hams. Hams are expected to help the government during emergencies. Their network is used for communication during disasters. Hams are using satellites for communication nowadays.
Amateur radio stations are providing training for people who are interested in becoming HAM operators. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed HAMSAT, a micro satellite, to provide satellite based services to HAM operators in India and all over the world.
Question-6
Satellite based communications are highly reliable during emergencies. Discuss.
Solution:
When information is transmitted through a satellite it is called Satellite based communication. Satellites are launched into space on rockets and they are put in orbit. Different satellites carry out different jobs such as weather forecasting and finding accurate locations.
Communication satellites are usually radio relay stations and are referred to as COMSATs.
The most important feature of a communication satellite is the transponder.
Data, television images and telephonic voice are routinely received and re-broadcasted by the transponders of communication satellites.
Satellite based communication system is reliable during disasters as Communication satellites are in orbit in space and are not vulnerable to natural disasters on earth. Global communication links can be established with very small satellite antennas.
The satellite phone is the most widely used means of communication during disasters. These phones provide reliable voice and data communication. They are handy and can be taken to any location.
The government of India is providing the Disaster / Emergency Managers of all the districts with portable satellite phones so that proper communication is maintained among the local authorities, during disasters.
Radio communication and satellite based communications are highly reliable and are used during emergencies all over the world.
Question-7
Why do Rescue and relief operations depend on an efficient communication system ?
Solution:
A well established communication system is very essential during a disaster. People have to be informed of impending disasters and they have to be given instructions to meet the disaster with least casualty.
Rescue and relief operations depend a great deal on an efficient communication system as people have to be informed of impending disasters and they have to be given instructions to meet the disaster with least casualty.
Question-8
Mention the different modes of emergency communication.
Solution:
The different modes of emergency communication are ………
Radio communication
(a) Wireless radio communication network
(b) Amateur radio or HAM
Satellite based communication system
(a) Geo- stationary orbit satellites
(b) Asynchronous orbit satellites
(i) Observation satellite
(ii) Science satellite
(iii)Global positioning systems satellites.
Question-9
Write a short note on HAM.
Solution:
There are 15,000 licensed HAM radio operators in India. HAM radio operators are known as Hams. Hams are expected to help the government during emergencies. Their network is used for communication during disasters. Hams are using satellites for communication nowadays.
Amateur radio stations are providing training for people who are interested in becoming HAM operators. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed HAMSAT, a micro satellite, to provide satellite based services to HAM operators in India and all over the world.
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