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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Biotechnology:Principles And Processes


NCERT  Solutions For Class 12 Biology Biotechnology:Principles And Processes

Topics and Subtopics in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology:Principles And Processes:

Section Name Topic Name
11 Biotechnology:Principles And Processes
11.1 Principles of Biotechnology
11.2 Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
11.3 Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
11.4 Summary


1. Can you list 10 recombinant proteins which are used in medical practice? Find out where they are used as therapeutics (use the internet).
Ans: (i) Human insulin – Diabetes
(ii) Human growth hormone – Dwarfism cure
(iii) Blood clotting factor Y1H/IX-Haemophilia
(iv) TPA (tissue plasminogen activator) – Heart attack/strokes
(v) PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) – Stimulates wound healing.
(vi) Interferon – Treatment of viral infection.
(vii) Interlinking – Enhances immune reaction,
(viii) Hepatitis B vaccine – Prevention of infectious disease.
(ix) Herpes Vaccine – Prevention of infectious disease.
(x) DNase I – Treatment of cystic fibrosis.

2. Make a chart (with diagrammatic representation) showing a restriction enzyme, the substrate DNA on which it acts, the site at which it cuts DNA and the product it produces.
Ans: Name of the Restriction enzyme – Bam HI.
The substrate DNA on which it acts –

3. From what you have learnt, can you tell whether enzymes are bigger or DNA is bigger in molecular size? How did you know?
Ans: Both DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and enzymes are macromolecules. DNA is a polymer of deoxyribonucleotides and enzymes are proteins hence these are polymers of amino acids. But DNA is bigger in molecular size as compared to proteins because synthesis of proteins is regulated by a small segment of DNA, called genes and also a large number of proteins can be synthesised by a DNA molecule.

4. What would be the molar concentration of human DNA in a human cell? Consult your teacher.
Ans: The molar concentration of DNA in human cell is 2 mg/ml of cell extract.

5. Do eukaryotic cells have restriction endonucleases? Justify your answer.
Ans: No, eukaryotic cells do not have restriction endonuclease because DNA molecules of eukaryotes are heavily methylated. All the restriction endonucleases have been isolated from various strain of bacteria.

6. Besides better aeration and mixing properties, what other advantages do stirred tank bioreactors have over shake flasks?
Ans: Shake flasks are used for growing and mixing the desired materials on a small scale in the laboratory. A large scale production of desired biotechnological product is done by using ‘bioreactors’. Besides better aeration and mixing properties, the bioreactors have following advantages
(i) Small volumes of cultures are periodically withdrawn from die reactor for sampling.
(ii) It has a foam control system, pH control system and temperature control system.
(iii) Facilitates even mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor.

7. Collect 5 examples of palindromic DNA sequences by consulting your teacher. Better try to create a palindromic sequence by following base-pair rules.
Ans: Palindrome nucleotide sequences in the DNA molecule are groups of bases that form the same sequence when read both forward and backward. Five examples of palindromic DNA sequences are as follows:
(i) 5′-—————GGATCC——————3’
(ii) 5’—————AAGCTT——————3′
3′——————TTCGAA —————-5′
(iii) 5′—————–ACGCGT—————–3′
3′——————TGCGGA————– 5′
(iv) 5′———- ACTAGT————3′
(v) 5′—————AGGCCT—————3′

8. Can you recall meiosis and indicate at what stage a recombinant DNA is made?
Ans: Recombinant DNA is formed due to crossing over between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosome. It occurs during pachytene stage of prophase of meiosis I

9. Can you think and answer how a reporter enzyme can be used to monitor transformation of host cells by foreign DNA in addition to a selectable marker?
Ans: A reporter enzyme can be used to differentiate transformed cells by tracking down the activity of its co-responding genes (receptor gene). For e.g., (3-galactosidase (Lac Z) activity is not found in transformed cells so that they appear white in colour. The others, which appear blue in colour, indicate that cells do not carry foreign DNA.

10. Describe briefly the followings:
(a) Origin of replication
(b) Bioreactors
(c) Downstream processing
Ans: (a) Origin of Replication: This is a sequence from where replication starts and any piece of DNA when linked to this sequence can be made to replicate within the host cells. This sequence is also responsible for controlling the copy number of the linked DNA. So, if one wants to recover many copies of the target DNA it should be cloned in a vector whose origin support high copy number.

(b) Bioreactor: Bioreactors can be thought of as vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products by microbes, plant and animal cell and/or their enzymes. The bioreactor provides optimum growth conditions and facilitates achieving the desired products. The most commonly used bioreactor is of stirring type. A stirred tank bioreactor is usually a cylindrical vessel or vessel with a curved base to facilitate mixing of the contents. In the sparged stirred tank bioreactor, sterile air bubbles are sparged. The stirrer facilitates the mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor. A bioreactor has an agitator system, an oxygen delivery system, a foam control system, a temperature control system, pH control system and sampling ports.

(c) Downstream Processing : The product obtained is subjected to a series, of processes collectively called downstream processing before it is made into a finished product ready for marketing. The two main processes are separation and purification. The product is then formulated with suitable preservatives. Such formulations have to undergo clinical trials, in case of drugs.

11. Explain briefly
(a) PCR
(b) Restriction enzymes and DNA
(c) Chitinase
Ans: (a) PCR = Polymerase chain reaction (in vitro method) is a molecular biological technique for enzymatically replicating DNA without using a living organism, such as E. coli or yeast.
3 steps in PCR are –
(i) Denaturation of desired double strand DNA-to ssDNA.
(ii) Annealing of primer to ssDNA (single standard).
(iii) Extension of primer by Taq DNA polymerase isolated form Thermits aquaticus.
Uses – Amplification of desired gene/gene cloning.
Advantage- More output, greater efficiency, less error prone, less human interference and cyclic and automated.
(b) Restriction enzymes and DNA – Restriction enzymes is a group of enzymes used to cleave or cut DNA strands each having a characteristics base sequence at which it cleaves.
(i) It restricts foreign DNA from entering normal cell by digesting it at various recognition site. Recognition site is palindromic.
(ii) They are endonuclease and exonuclease both types.
(iii) They produces sticky ends. Cleavage site and recognition site are different from each other. Restriction enzymes therefore are believed to be a mechanism evolved by bacteria to resist viral attack and to help in the removal of viral sequences.
(c) Chitinase – Chitinase is a enzyme to digest or breakdown glycosidic bonds in chitin cell wall of fungal cell to facilitate its transformation.

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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts


NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts 


1. Explain with examples what historians mean by the integration of cults.
Ans: During the period of the 10th Century to the 17th Century, an important trend noticed in the religious life in India is the worship of God in many forms. Many God and Goddesses appear in the scultures and texts but they are various forms of the original deities only. These original deities are Vishnu, Shiva, and Goddesses Durga, Lakshmi and Parvati.
Historians have noticed the two marked trends in the socio-religious life of those days. The first was dissemination of the Brahminical ideas. The Brahminical texts were reproduced in simple Sanskrit. They were now made available to women and shudras, who did not have access to Brahminical literature by and large. The second was the Brahmins who were working on the beliefs and practices. It was a process of evolution, wherein traditional classical traditions were getting new shapes continuously as they were being impacted by the traditions of common people throughout the land.
Now let us look at the two of the following examples.
1.A very good example of the above description is the temple of Jagannatha at Puri
in Orissa. The temple is of Lord Jagannatha who is another form of Vishnu only. The word Jagannatha means one who owns the world.
2.There were many local gods; their statues were often created by wood and stones by tribals. Even families began to have Kul Devata. The Goddeses were also created in wood and stone. They all were in various forms only often of Vishnu.

2. To what extent do you think the architecture of mosques in the subcontinent reflects a combination of universal ideals and local traditions?
Ans: The architecture of mosques in the subcontinent reflects a combination of universal ideals and local traditions in a significant way. Some architectural features of mosques are universal – such as their orientation towards Mecca, evident in the placement of the mihrab (prayer niche) and the minbar (pulpit). However, there are variations in roofs and building materials. For example, a mosque in Kerala (c. thirteenth century) has the shikhara-like roof. Atiya mosque in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh was built with brick. The Shah Hamadan mosque in Srinagar, on the banks of Jhelum is often regarded as the “jewel in the crown” of all the existing mosques of Kashmir was built in 1395. It ig one of the best examples of Kashmiri wooden architecture. It has the spire and the beautifully carved eaves. It is decorated with papier mache.

3. What were the similarities and differences between the be-shari‘a and ba-shari‘a sufi traditions?
Ans: Shari’a is the Islamic law that is applied in a truly Islamic country. The Shari’a law owes its origin to the Holy book of Quran, Hadis (Law book of Islam) and teachings of Prophet Muhammad.
In the medieval ages the Islamic world witnessed a big social and religious movement called Sufi movement. Sufi movement was the people-centric and not God-centric. It believed serving people was the real form of worship. Sufi movement has had many branches too. One group of Sufi preachers took very radical path. They were mystics who renounced material world took to the life of asceticism. Further they also rejected the supremacy of the Shari’a laws. Such sufis were called be-shari‘a.

On the other hand , there were sufi saints who criticised the extravagant lifestyle of monarchs and Khaliphates but did not reject Shari’a laws. For them Shari’a laws were sacrosant. These Sufi saints have been called be-shari‘a.

4. Discuss the ways in which the Alvars, Nayanars and Virashaivas expressed critiques of the caste system.
Ans: The early Bhakti Movement was led by Alvars and Nayanars. It was the period of the 6th Century. Alvars are those who were disciples of Vishnu and Nayanars were those who claimed themselves the followers of Lord Shiva. They travelled place to place and would sing devotional songs in Tamil in the name of Shiva or Vishnu as the case may be. Apart from being a religious movement, it was a social movement too. Many historians are of the view that Alvars and Nayanars gave a blow to the caste system and Brahminism. This is corroborated by the fact that the movement was open to people from diverse background. The Bhaktas came from the castes of Brahmin to artisans to even those that were considered untouchables.
Virashaivas was a movement of the 12th Century that took place in Karnataka. The movement was led by a Brahmin named Basavanna (1106-68), who was a minister in the court of Chalukya king. The followers of Basavanna are called Virashaivas and they worshipped Shiv. They were also called and perhaps more often Lingayats, which literary means wearer of Lingas. They challenged the caste system and they challenged the idea of any caste being pollutant. This helped them grow support among marginalised sections of the society. Virashaivas also attacked some evil practices
supposedly not approved by Shashtras, such as post puberty marriage and remarriage of widows. Further they also questioned the theory of rebirth.

5. Describe the major teachings of either Kabir or Guru Nanak and the way they have been transmitted. (or)
Explain the teachings of Guru Nanak. Did he want to establish a new religion?
Ans: Kabir is a great poet-cum-saint of Indian society. He has had appeal among Hindus and Muslims alike as it is believed that he was bom as Hindu but was brought up by a muslim couple. He wrote poems that exhorted both communities to take to social reforms.
The major teachings of Kabir were as follows:
1. Kabir described God as nirankar (having no shape). He used the terms drawn from Islamic tradition like Allah, Khuda, Hajrat and Peer but also used words of Vedic traditions like Alakh ( (the unseen) and nirakar ( the formless). Thus, he freely took to both traditions viz. Islamic and Vedantic.
2. He repudiated idol worship and polytheism.
3. He emphasised on the oneness of God though there can be many names of His.
4. He criticised religious rituals of hindus and muslims alike.
5. He also preached against caste discrimination.
6. He combined the Sufi traditions of love of God with the Hindi tradition of remembrance of God.
7. He also emphasised the dignity of labour.
Thus, the essence of the teachings of Kabir was simple living based on love and respect all. He wrote in simple language to be understood by common man of the country.
Guru Nanak and his teachings
Guru Nanak was born in a Hindu family in 1469 at Nankana Saheb on the bank of the river Ravi. His birth place is now in Pakistan. He learnt Persian, Arabic , Hindi and Mathematics. He spent time in the company of Sufi saints and Bhaktas of various socio-religious movements.
The major teachings of Guru Nanak are as follows:
1. He rejected the religious texts of both Hindus and Muslims.
2. He preached God is Nirakar viz. without any shape.
3. He criticised the religious practices like ceremonial bath, sacrifices , idol worship, and emphasised simplicity.
4. He called upon his followers to connect to divine by remembering and repeating the divine name.
Guru Nanak expressed himself in Punjabi, the language of the local people in a lyrical form called Shabad. Shabad can be recited in various ragas.

6. Discuss the major beliefs and practices that characterised Sufism.
Ans: The major beliefs and practices that characterised Sufism are as given below –

  1. Sufis turned to asceticism and mysticism in protest against the growing materialism of the Caliphate as a religious and political institution.
  2. They were against the dogmatic definitions and scholastic methods of interpreting the Qur’an and sunna adopted by theologians.
  3. They laid emphasis on seeking salvation through intense devotion and love for God.
  4. They regarded Prophet Muhammad as a perfect human being and suggested to follow his example.
  5. Sufis organised communities around the khanqah controlled by a shaikh, pir or murshid.
  6. Special rituals of initiation were developed in which initiates took an oath of allegiance, wore a patched garment and shaved their hair.
  7. After the death of the shaikh, his tomb-shrine or dargah became the centre of devotion for his followers who performed pilgrimage or ziyarat to his grave on the occasion of death anniversary or urs.

7. Examine how and why rulers tried to establish connections with the traditions of the Nayanars and the sufis.
Ans: Nayanars were the worshippers of Lord Shiva. It gained a shape of powerful Bhakti movement in South India in 6th Century onwards. Apart from being popular with the people, the movement got support and patronage of the rulers of the time. This is manifested by the following facts:
1. A major part of South India was ruled by Chola Kings during the period 9th to 13th Century. They gave great patronage to the Bhakti movement saints including Nayanars. Thus, they did by making grants of land and constructing temples of Shiva and Vishnu for the saints of Bhakti movement.
2. The most beautiful temples of Shiva of South India, namely, at Chidambaram, Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholpuram were constructed under the patronage of Chola rulers.
3. During the same period some of the most spectacular representation of Shiva in bronze sculpture were produced. All this was possible because the rulers patronised the Nayanars.
4. Nayanars had considerable following among farmers.
The rulers tried to establish connections with the Nayanars and this is explained by the aforesaid description. The reason why they did is not far to seek. One reason could be to bring sanctity to the their rule. By giving alms to the temple and the preachers of Nayanar sect the rulers also announced their wealth and might. Next such acts might have endeared the rulers to the masses.
Sufi Tradition and the rulers of Delhi Sultnate and Mughals:
In the 12th Century, Delhi and a considerable part of India fell to the rule of Muslim rulers. This rule is known as the period of Delhi Sultanate. The rulers of Delhi Sultanate claimed themselves under Khalifate of Kabul and tried to legitimize their rule. The next step could have been establishing the rule of Shari‘a laws. However, the rulers realised for the very beginning that it was impractical. Under the Delhi Sultanate most of the people were not Muslim. Shari’a laws were not feasible also because lacked flexibity which a ruler needed to govern. The rulers of Delhi Sultanate wanted to take a practical path of governance without renouncing Islam. Sufi tradition gave them this opportunity. The same idea prevailed during the rule of the great Mughals too. Hence the rulers of Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire adopted the tradition of sufism.

8. Analyses, illustrations, why bhakti and sufi thinkers adopted a variety of languages in which to express their opinions.
Ans: In medieval India, though Sanskrit and Persian may be the language of the educated people or at the court, the vast number of people living in villages conversed in the local languages. It was, therefore, needed that the Bhakti and Sufi saints preached in the languages of the common people. This was in fact essential in order to make these movement truly popular.
This is manifested in the following examples:
1. The traditional Bhakti saints composed the hymns in Sanskrit. Such hymns were sung on special occasions often within temples.
2. The Nayanars and the Alvars were wandering saints. They travelled far and
wide, often walking on foot. They met people in different villages. These saints would sing the verses in praise of God all in the language of the local people only. The language was Tamil only. These travelling saints established temples where prayers took place in Tamil and the devotional songs were composed by the Bhakti Saints.
3. In North India the language was different. Here too the saints took to the language of the common people. Guru Nanak created Shabad all in Punjabi. Baba Farid and Swami Raidas (Ravidas) all composed in Punjabi and Hindustani.
4. Kabirdas who lived in Benaras, wrote in local language which was closer to Hindustani. He used words there part of local dialect.
5. The Sufi tradition of singing on tombs carried on in the language of the local people only. The shrines were the place of Sama sung in Hindustani or Hindavi. Another Sufi Saint Baba Farid composed in Punjabi too that even became part of Guru Granth Sahib.
6. Some other saints wrote in Kannada, Tamil and other languages too.
Thus, we are inclined to agree with the view that the Saints of Bhakti and Sufi Movement composed in many languages and the languages of the common people to connect with them.

9. Read any five of the sources included in this chapter and discuss the social and religious ideas that are expressed in them.
Ans: The social and religious ideas that are expressed in five of the sources are given below :

  1. Source 1. The Chaturvedin Brahmana versed in the four Vedas) and the “outcastes”- In this source Tondaradippodi has opposed the caste system by stating that the “outcastes” who express their love for Vishnu are better than the ‘Chaturvedins” who are strangers and without allegiance towards Vishnu.
  2. Sources 4. Rituals and the real world – In this source Basavanna who led the Virashaiva tradition in Karnataka opposed the Brahmanical rituals. In his vachana, he describes that the followers of Brahmanical traditions on seeing a serpent carved in stone, they pour milk on it but when they see a real serpent, they try to kill him. It implies that the rituals are useless.
  3. Sources 5. A church in Khambat – It is about a farman (imperial order) issued by Akbar in 1598 to the people of Khambat that no one should stand in the way of construction of a church there but should allow the padris (fathers) to build a church. This proves that Akbar followed a policy of religious toleration and people were allowed to follow any religion in his empire.
  4. Source 6. Reverence for the Jogi – It is an excerpt from a letter by Aurangzeb to a Jogi in 1661-62 sending him a piece of cloth and twenty-five rupees. It shows that till 1661-62, Aurangzeb was following a policy of religious toleration and granted help to non-Muslims. It was only later on 1678 that Aurangzeb imposed Jaziya on non-Muslims.
  5. Source 7. The pilgrimage of the Mughal princess Jahanara, 1643 – It is about Jahanara’s pilgrimage to the dargah of Shaikh Muinuddin Chishti in which she has narrated her experience. This shows that the sufi saints were revered by the royal family too. The Emperor and the members of the royal family used to visit their tombs or dargah to seek their blessings.

10. On an outline map of India, plot three major sufi shrines and three places associated with temples (one each of a form of Vishnu, Shiva and the goddess.)

11. Choose any two of the religious teachers/thinkers/saints mentioned in this chapter, and find out more about their lives and teachings. Prepare a report about the area and the times in which they lived, their major ideas, how do we know about them, and why you think they are important?
Ans: Following are the two saints of the Bhakti movement who are described as follows:
Guru Nanak:
Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi on 15th April, 1469. The village now is known as Nankana Sahib. He belonged to a Khatri caste. Before Guru Nanak departed for his heavenly abode on 22nd Sept., 1539, his name had travelled not only throughout India’s north, south, east and west, but also far beyond into Arabia, Mesopotamia (Iraq), Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Afghanistan, Turkey, Burma and Tibet.
His teachings included:
Equality of humans: Guru Nanak preached against discrimination and prejudices due to race, caste, status, etc. He said: “See the brotherhood of all mankind as the highest order of Yogis; conquer your own mind, and conquer the world.”
Universal message for all people: Normally preachers confined their preachings to the men of their own religion. But Nanak reached out. He spoke to hindus and muslims both and said to all “To take what rightfully belongs to another is like a muslim eating pork, or a hindu eating beef.”
Equality of women: Nanak promoted women’s rights and equality—a first for the 15th century! He asked:
“From woman, man is born; within woman, man is conceived; to woman he is engaged and married. Woman becomes his friend; through woman, the future generations come. When his woman dies, he seeks another woman; to woman he is bound. So should why we call her bad?
Saint Namdeo was born in the year 1270 in the village of Narasi-Bamani, now located in the Hingoli District in Maharashtra. He is a great Saint Poet of Maharashtra. He was one of the earliest writers who wrote in the Marathi language. He is the foremost proponent of the Bhagwad-Dharma who reached beyond Maharashtra, right into Punjab. He also wrote some hymns in Hindi and Punjabi, Namdev travelled through many parts of India, reciting his religious poems. In difficult times, he played the difficult role of uniting the pendle of Maharashtra spiritually, He is said to have lived for more than twenty years in the village of Ghuman in the Gurdaspur district of Punjab. The Sikh brethren in Punjab consider him one.

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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts


NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts 


1. Describe the process of manuscript production in the Mughal court.
Ans: Process of manuscript production in the Mughal court included the following:
(a) Paper-maker’s responsibility was to prepare the folios of the manuscript.
(b) Skill writer, i.e. scribes or calligrapher copied the texts.
(c) Guilders, illuminated the pages of the manuscript.
(d) Miniature painter illustrated the scene from the text.
(e) The book binders gathered the folio and gave it to the original shape of a book.

2. In what ways would the daily routine and special festivities associated with the Mughal court have conveyed a sense of the power of the emperor?
Ans: The daily routine and special festivities associated with the Mughal court would have conveyed a sense of the power of the emperor in the following ways :

  1. The emperor, after personal religious prayers, appeared on a small balcony for Jharoka darshan, before a crowd of people for darshan of the emperor. The Jharoka darshan was introduced by Akbar with the objective of broadening the acceptance of the imperial authority as part of the popular faith.
  2. The focus of the physical arrangement of the court was on the sovereign. It mirrored his status as the heart of society. Its centrepiece was, therefore, the throne, the takht which gave physical form to the function of the sovereign as pillar.
  3. The rules regarding status of the Mughal elites were laid down with great precision. In court, status was determined by spatial proximity to the emperor.
  4. Once the emperor sat on the throne, no one was permitted to move from his position or to leave without permission.
  5. Whenever the court or darbar was held, all who had admittance were required to make the kornish.
  6. The forms of salutation to the ruler indicated the person’s status in the hierarchy. Deeper prostration represented higher status.
  7. The diplomatic envoys like ambassador were expected to offer an acceptable form of greeting — either by bowing deeply or kissing the ground or else to follow the Persian custom of clasping one’s hands in front of the chest.
  8. Special occasions such as Id, Shab-i barat anniversary of accession to the throne, festivals — the solar and lunar birthdays of the monarch were celebrated in such a way that left tremendous impression on visitors.
  9. Grand titles were adopted by the Mughal emperors at the time of coronation or after a victory over an enemy.
  10. Mughal coins carried the full title of the reigning emperor with regal protocal.
  11. A courtier always approached the emperor with gifts. He generally offered a small sum of money (nazr) or a large amount (peshkash).
  12. Even in diplomatic relations, gifts were regarded as a sign of honour and respect.

3. Assess the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire
Ans: (i) The term “haram” is used to describe the domestic world of the Mughals. This word is taken from the Persian word haram, which means a sacred place.
(ii) The Mughal household consisted of the emperor’s wives and concubines, his near and distant relatives (mother, step- and foster-mothers, sisters, daughters, daughters-in-law, aunts, children, etc.), and female servants and slaves.
(iii) Polygamy was practised widely in the Indian subcontinent, especially among the ruling groups. Both for the Rajput clans as well as the Mughals marriage was a way of cementing political relationships and forging alliances.
(iv) The gift of territory was often accompanied by the gift of a daughter in marriage. This ensured a continuing hierarchical relationship between ruling groups. It was through the link of marriage and the relationships that developed as a result that the Mughals were able to form a vast kinship network that linked them to important groups and helped to hold a vast empire together.
(v) In the Mughal household a distinction was maintained between wives who came from royal families (begams), and other wives (aghas) who were not of noble birth.
(vi) The begams, married after receiving huge amounts of cash and valuables as dowry (maahr), naturally received a higher status and greater attention from their husbands than did aghas. The concubines (aghacha or the lesser agha) occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy of females intimately related to royalty.
(vii) The agha and the aghacha could rise to the position of a begam depending on the husband’s will, and provided that he did not already have four wives.
(viii) Love and motherhood played important roles in elevating such women to the status of legally wedded wives. Apart from wives, numerous male and female slaves populated the Mughal Household. The tasks they performed varied from the most mundane to those requiring skill, tact and intelligence.
(xi)Slave eunuchs (khwajasara) moved between the external and internal life of the household as guards, servants, and also as agents for women dabbling in commerce.

4. What were the concerns that shaped Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the subcontinent?
Ans: (i) The Safavids and Qandahar: The political and diplomatic relations between , the Mughal kings and the neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan hinged on the control of the frontier defined by the Hindukush mountains that separated Afghanistan from the regions of Iran and Central Asia. A constant aim of Mughal policy was to ward off this potential danger by controlling strategic outposts – notably Kabul and Qandahar. The fortress-town Qandahar had initially been in the possession of Humayun, reconquered in 1595 by Akbar.The Safavid court retained diplomatic relations with the Mughals, it continued to stake.claims to Qandahar. Jahangir sent a diplomatic envoy to the court of Shah Abbas in 1613 to plead the Mughal case for retaining Qandahar, but the mission failed to achieve its objectives. Persian army besieged Qandahar in 1622. The Mughal garrison was defeated and had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.

(ii) The Ottomans: pilgrimage and trade: The relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans ensured free movement for merchants and pilgrims in the territories under Ottoman control. This was especially true for the Hijaz, that part of Ottoman Arabia where the important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located.
The Mughal emperor combined religion and commerce by exporting essential goods to Aden and Mokha, and distributing the proceeds of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and religious men there.

(iii) Jesuits at the Mughal court: European received knowledge about India through the accounts of Jesuit missionaries, travellers, merchants and diplomats. After the discovery of sea route to India, the Portuguese merchants set up their trading network stations in coastal region. The Portuguese was also interested in the spread of Christianity with the help of the missionaries of the Society of Jesuits. The Christian missions who sent to India during the sixteenth century were part of this process of trade and empire building. The first Jesuit mission reached the Mughal court of Mughal emperor Akbar at Fatehpur oikri in 1580 and stayed here for about two years. The Jesuits spoke to Akbar about Christianity and debated its virtues with the ulema. Two more missions were sent to the Mughal court at Lahore, in 1591 and 1595. The Jesuit accounts are based on personal observation and shed light on the character and mind of the emperor. At public assemblies the Jesuits were assigned places in close proximity to Akbar’s throne.. The Jesuit accounts corroborate the information given in Persian chronicles about state officials and the general conditions of life in Mughal times.

5. Discuss the major features of Mughal provincial administration. How did the centre control the provinces ?

  1. The Mughal provincial administration was like the central administration as mentioned below :
    • There were diwan, bakhshi and sadr corresponding the central ministers – Diwan-i ala, mir-bakshi and sadr-us sudur.
    • The head of the provincial administration was the governor (subadar) who directly reported to the emperor.
    • A suba was divided into sarkars.
    • Faujdars were deployed with contingents of heavy cavalry and musketeers in districts.
    • At the local level were parganas which were looked after by the qanungo (keeper of revenue records), the chaudhuri (in charge of revenue collection) and the qazi.
    • There was clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers and other functionaries who were technically qualified officials. They functioned with standardised rules and procedures.
    • Persian was the language of the administration but local languages were used for village accounts.
  2. The Mughal emperor and his court controlled the entire administrative apparatus down to the village level. However, the relationship between local landed magnates, the zamindars, and the representatives of the Mughal emperor was sometimes marked by conflicts over authority and a share of the resources. Moreover, after the death of Aurangzeb the provincial governors became powerful and this led to the downfall of the Mughal Empire.

6. Discuss, with examples, the distinctive features of Mughal chronicles.
Ans: (i) Chronicles commissioned by the Mughal emperors are an important source for studying the empire and its court. They were written in order to project a vision of an enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella. The authors of
Mughal chronicles focused on events-related to life of the ruler, their family, the court and nobles, wars and administrative

(ii) These chronicles were written in Persian. This language flourished as a language of the court and of literary writings, alongside north Indian languages, especially Hindavi and its regional variants. As the Mughals were Chaghtai Turks by origin, Turkish was their mother tongue.

(iii) Chronicles narrating the events of a Mughal emperor’s reign contained, alongside the written text, images that described an event in visual form.

(iv) When scenes or themes in a book were to be given visual expression, the scribe left blank spaces on nearby pages; paintings, executed separately by artists, were inserted to accompany what was; described in words.

Question 7.
To what extent do you think the visual material presented in this chapter corresponds with Abu’l Fazl’s description of the taswir (Source 1)?
Solution :
Abu’l Fazl held the art of painting in high esteem. Drawing the likeness of anything was called taswir. Many paintings were masterpieces which could be compared with wonderful works of the European painters. The minuteness in detail, the general finish and the boldnesss of execution observed in pictures were incomparable. Such was the observation of Abu’l Fazl about the taswir. The visual material presented in this corresponds to the above description to a great extent in the followings ways :

  1. In the picture, ‘A Mughal Kitabkhana’, every work relating to the preparation of the manuscript has been shown minutely.
  2. In another painting by Abu’l Hasan, Jahangir has been shown dressed in resplendent clothes and jewels, holding up a portrait of his father Akbar. The emperors have been portrayed wearing halo.
  3. In another painting by the artist Prayag, Jahangir is presenting Prince Khurram with a turban jewel. It is a scene from the Badshah Nama. The artist has also used the motif of the lion and the cow peacefully nestling next to each other to signify a realm where both the strong and the weak could exist in harmony. It has been placed in a niche directly below the emperor’s throne.

The above and other paintings — Jahangir shooting the figure of poverty (Abu’l Hasan), Shah Jahan honouring Prince Aurangzeb at Agra before his wedding (Payag), Dara Shukoh’s wedding — meet the above description of Abu’l Fazl.

8. What were the distinctive features of the Mughal nobility? How was their relationship
with the emperor shaped?
Ans: Recruitment, rank of the n ability and relationship with the emperor:
(i) Mughal chronicles, especially the Akbar Nama, have bequeathed a vision of empire in which agency rests almost solely with the emperor, while the rest of the kingdom has been portrayed as following his orders, if we look more closely at the available information the histories provide us about the apparatus of the Mughal state, we may be able to understand the ways in which the imperial organisation was dependent on several different institutions.

(ii) The most important pillar of the Mughal state was the nobility. The nobility was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious group which ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state.

(iii) The officer corps of the Mughals was described as a bouquet of flowers (guldasta) held together by loyalty to the emperor. In Akbar’s imperial service, Turani and Iranian nobles were present from the earliest phase of carving out a political dominion. Many had accompanied Humayun; others migrated later to the Mughal court.

(iv) The holders of government offices was given the ranks (mansabs) comprising two numerical designations: zat which was an indicator of position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of the official (mansabdar), and sawar which indicated the number of horsemen he was required to maintain in service.

(v) Akbar, who designed the mansab system, also established spiritual relationships with a select band of his nobility by treating them as his disciples (murid).

(vi) For members of the nobility, imperial service was a way of acquiring power, wealth and the highest possible reputation. A person wishing to join the service petitioned through a noble, who presented a tajwiz to the emperor.

(vii) If the applicant was found suitable, a mansab was granted to him. The mir bakhshi (paymaster general) stood in open court on the right of the emperor and presented all candidates for appointment or promotion, while his office prepared orders bearing his seal and signature as well as those of the emperor. There were two other important ministers at the centre: the diwan-i ai (finance minister) and sadr-us sudur (minister of grants or madad-i maash, and in charge of appointing local judges or qazis)

(viii) The three ministers occasionally came together as an advisory body, but were independent of each other.

(xi) Akbar with these and other advisers shaped the administrative, fiscal and monetary institutions of the empire. Nobles stationed at the court (tainat-i rakab) were a reserve force to be deputed to a province or military campaign. Nobles were duty-bound to appear twice a day to express submission their to the emperor.
(x) They also had to share the responsibility for guarding the emperor and his household round the clock.

9. Identify the elements that went into the making of the Mughal ideal of kingship.
Ans: (i) According to Akbars court poet, Abu’l Fazl Mughal kingship as the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light emanating from God (farr-i- izadi). According to this idea, there was a Hierarchy in which the Divine Light was transmitted to the king (Mughal Emperor) who then became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects.

(ii) Mughal chronicles present the empire as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities – Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims. As the source of all peace and stability, the emperor stood above all religious and ethnic groups, mediated among them, and ensured that justice and peace prevailed.

(iii) Abu’l Fazl describes the ideal of sulh-i kui (absolute peace) as the cornerstone of enlightened rule. In sulh-i kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves The ideal of sulh-i kul was implemented through state policies – the nobility under the Mughals was a composite one comprising Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, Qeccanis – all of whom were given positions and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king.

(iv) Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and jizya in 1564 as the two were based on religious discrimination. Instructions were sent to officers of the empire to follow the concept of sulh-i kul.

(v) All Mughal emperors gave grants to support the buildings and maintenance of places of worship. However, it was during the reign of Auranzeb, the jizya was re¬imposed on non-Muslim subjects.

(vi) Abu’l Fazl defined sovereignty as a social contract. According to him the emperor protects the four essences of subjects, namely, life (jan), property (mal), honour (narnus) and faith (din), and in return demands obedience and a share of resources from the people. Only sovereigns were thought to be able to honour the contract with power and Divine guidance.

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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives


NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives


1. Why was jotedar a powerful figure in many areas of rural Bengal ?
Ans: Jotedars were rich peasants in Bengal. They owned big plots of land sometimes running into thousand of acres of land. They controlled local trade and commerce including the money lending business. They had great influence on the local village population. They were regarded more powerful than the Zamindars even. Following are the main reasons for the high status of Jotedars.

  1.  The Jotedars controlled trade and commerce including money lending business at the local level.
  2. In order to weaken the Zamindars, Jotedars would mobilise ryots not to pay or delay payment towards land revenue.
  3. The Jotedars opposed the moves of Zamindars to increase the Jama of a village.
  4. The Jotedars lived in villages only. Hence they were in a better position to interact with and influence the peasants.
  5. Jotedars were rich and owned big areas of land under cultivation. Many a time they would buy estates of Zamindar. That would be auctioned due to failure to pay up land revenue.

2. How did zamindars manage to retain control over their zamindaris?
Ans: The zamindars manage to retain control over their zamindaris in the following manners :

1. Fictitious sale : It involved series of manoeuvres. For example, Raja of Burdwan, first transferred some of his zamindari to his mother because the company had decreed that property of women would not be taken over by the company. Secondly, his agents manipulated the auctions by buying the property, outbidding other purchasers. Subsequently, they refused to pay up the purchase money. As a result of it, the Estate was again resold at auction. But as the zamindar’s agents used to purchase it again and again, and did not pay the purchase amount, the auctions were repeated endlessly. Ultimately, the estate was sold at a lower price back to the zamindars, who never paid the full revenue demand. Such transactions took place on a large scale in Bengal including Burdwan.

2. Attack on outsiders : Whenever outsiders purchased an estate at an auction, they could not always take possession because their agents would be attacked by lathyals of the former zamindar.

3. Sometimes even the ryots resisted the outsiders due to their close relations with the zamindar. The ryots considered themselves to be the proja (subjects) of the zamindar.

Thus, the zamindars could not be displaced. Thereafter the rules of revenue payment were made flexible. As a result of that, the zamindar’s power over the villages were strengthened. It was only during the Great Depression of 1930s that their power collapsed and the jotedars consolidated their power in the countryside.

3. How did the Paharias respond to the coming of outsiders? 
Ans: Paharias live in the hills of Rajmahal. The British people began to interact with them and later Santhals began to settle down there. The response of the Paharias was as follows:

  1. Paharias resisted the settlement of Santhals initially but had to accommodate them in course of time.
  2. The Paharias shifted to deeper areas into the hills.
  3. They were confined to more barren and rocky areas of the hills in course of time.
  4. The paharias did shifting cultivation. Now shifting cultivation was becoming more and more difficult as proper and stable settlements.
  5. As forest began to be cleared, the paharis could not depend on it for livelihood. Thus, the lifestyle and living of Paharias underwent change due to coming of outsiders.

4. Why did the Santhals rebel against British rule?
Ans: By 1832 the Santhals had settled in Damin-i-Koh area. Their settlement expanded rapidly. Forests were cleared to accommodate them. The Company also benefitted as it got more and more land revenue. However, the Santhals too got dissatisfied. They rebelled against the British rule. Following are the main causes for their rebellion.
1. Santhals were not happy with the tax regime of the company. They thought that the land revenue rates were high and exploitative .
2. The Zamindars began to exercise greater control on the areas brought under cultivation by Santhals, apparently it was a part of the British Policy. But Santhals resented that.
3. Moneylenders in the rural areas were seen as villain and agent of Company rule by the Santhals. Moneylenders could auction the land of Santhals in case of defaulter. All this was not liked by the Santhals.
The British took steps to placate the Santhals later on. A separate district of Santhal Pargana was carved out and law was enacted to protect the santhals.

5. What explains the anger of the Deccan ryots against the moneylenders?
Ans: During the civil war in USA, Indian merchants hoped to capture the world market in raw cotton, but that did not happen. On the other hand, the following events took place after the civil war:

  • Cotton production in America revived and the Indian cotton exports to British steadily declined.
  • Export merchants and sahukars in Maharashtra refused to give long-term credit. They restricted the advances to peasants and demanded repayment of outstanding debts.
  • At the same time as the term of first revenue settlement was over, the demand for revenue was increased from 50 to 100 per cent.

As a result of above, the ryots were not in position to pay the inflated demand because the prices were also falling. Thus, they had no option except to take a further loan from the moneylender who also refused to loans. This enraged the ryots. The moneylenders became insensitive to their plight. They were violating the customary norms of the countryside. For example, general norm was that the interest charged could not be more than the principal. They were not charging fair interest. In one of the cases, investigated by the Deccan Riots Commission, the moneylender charged over ? 2000 as interest on a loan of ? 100. There were complaints of injustice of such extractions and the violation of custom. A new law – Limitation Law – was passed in 1859 where validity of loan bonds was fixed for three years but the

moneylenders manipulated new systems to exploit the ryots. Under these circumstances, the ryots’ anger against the moneylenders increased.

6. Why were so many Zamindaris auctioned after the Permanent settlement?
Ans: Many Zamindaris were auctioned as the Zamindars failed to pay up the agreed land revenue on time. The reason for the same:
1. Many believed that the land revenue settlemnt was on the higher side. Moreover soon after the permanent settlement the foodgrain prices declined. The ryots could not pay up the land revenue and hence Zamindars also defaulted.
2. The revenue was to be deposited on time irrespective of harvesting cycle. This was another reason for default by the Zamindars.
3. The power of Zamindars was curbed by the Company. They were no longer law and order enforcing agency at local level. Their musclemen were also weakened. As a result of this Zamindars could not effectively collect taxes at times.
4. Many a time Jotedars and peasants deliberately delayed the land revenue payment. This resulted in default by Zamindars and the auction thereafter.

7. In what way was the livelihood of Paharias different from that of Santhals?
Ans: Paharias were living in the foothills of Rajmahal. They lived a life that was different from Santhals. Most of the information on their lives is based on the report of Buchanan, the physician of the East India Company who wandered into the terrain of Rajmahal Hills.

  1. The paharias were nomads. They lived a wandering life. They, however, sometimes did shifting cultivation.
  2. Their another important source of livelihood of forest resources and animals.
  3. They extracted mahua and used it. Colonialism and the countryside: Exploring official archives
  4. Paharias used to look at outsiders with suspicion and even were hostile with them.
  5. The Santhals were different from them on many counts.
  6. The Santhals took to agriculture fast and soon got into settled life.
  7. They had better relation with the outsiders including the East India Company.

8. How did the American Civil War affect the lives of ryots in India?
Ans: The American Civil War affected the lives of ryots in India in the following ways :

  1. In the beginning, as a result of civil war, the imports of cotton from America fell from over 2,000,000 bales in 1861 to 55,000 bales in 1862. The Britain looked towards to fill the gap. Thus, export merchants in Bombay were keen to avail this opportunity to earn maximum. The advances to urban sahukars, moneylenders and ultimately to the ryots were provided. This led to increase in cotton production. The ryots were given ? 100 as advance for every acre they planted with cotton. The cotton export to Britain increased but this did not bring prosperity for all. Some rich peasants gained but for the majority of cotton producers including the ryots, cotton expansion led to heavier debt.
  2. The end of war again affected the ryots badly because with the revival of cotton production in America, the Indian exports declined. The sahukars were no longer interested in extending long-term loans. The demand for cotton had reduced, cotton prices slided downwards. It hit the ryots badly.
  3. At the same time, under the new settlement for revenue, the demand was increased from 50 to 100 per cent. Under the conditions of falling prices and reduction in the growth of cotton in the absences of loans, it was not possible for the ryots to make payment of the inflated demand. Once again they had no option except to take loan from the moneylender but they refused to extend loans. This made the condition of ryots miserable and ultimately led to riots.

9. What are the problems of using the official sources in writing about the history of peasants.
Ans: Official sources of the Company Raj are not regarded as reliable source of history when it came to the lot of Ryots.
Following are the main problems associated with official source of history.
1. The official records reflect only the Company raj perspective. They did not look at events from different angles. For example when the Deccan Riot Commission was instituted, it was required to find out if the land revenue was just or not. Other issues of Ryots were not taken into account.
2. The British people looked down upon the local people, their culture and tradition as lowly. They ended up giving a lowly picture of peasants even if without intention of the same.
3. The record of the Company Raj was created by the officials in such a manner that it suits their masters. Thus, evidences were tempered with. For example the Deccan Ryot Commission concluded that Ryots were angered not by the high land revenue but by moneylenders.
4. Thus, official sources are to be read alongwith other sources and need to be weighed before we take them to our stride.

10. On an outline map of the subcontinent, mark out the areas described in this chapter. Find out whether there were other areas where the Permanent Settlement and the ryotwari system were prevalent and plot these on the map as well.
Ans: In the chapter the following areas have been mentioned of the subcontinent.
(a) Bengal. (Bangladesh along with certain area of Bihar, Orissa and hilly areas of Assam).
(b) Bombay Presidency and
(c) Madras Presidency,
(d) The Britishers introduced Mahalwari system of land revenue in eastern part of Punjab
(e) Surat
(f) Rajmahal hills (occupied by Paharias and Santhals).

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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 11 Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations


NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 11 Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations


1. Why did the mutinous sepoys in many places turn to erstwhile rulers to provide leadership to the revolt?
Ans: Following are the major reasons to explain why the rebellious soldiers turned to native rulers for leadership:
1. East India company defeated native rulers to grab power in India. Many believed that the native Indian rulers had the legal and legitimate authority to regain power in the respective kingdoms. Therefore, it was natural that they became the leaders of the rebels and regain the lost status of rulers.

2. The erstwhile rulers had substantial resources at their command. They had wealth and private armies too. The rebels waited to get the support of resources from them, and by declaring them the leaders it was natural outcome.

3. Most of the erstwhile Indian rulers were popular at the local level. Their subjects often sympathised with them as they believed that the latter were unlawfully thrown out of power and even suffered humiliation. Choosing these native rulers was echoing the sentiments of the people and winning more support for the cause.

2. Discuss the evidence that indicates planning and coordination on the part of the rebels.
Ans: The evidence that indicates planning and coordination on the part of the rebels is as given below :

  1. Lines of communication :
    • There was communication between the sepoy lines of various cantonments. For example, after the 7th Awadh Irregular Cavalry had refused to use new cartridges, they wrote to the 48th Native Infantry that “they had acted for the faith and awaited the 48th’s orders.”
    • Sepoys or their emissaries moved from one station to another.
  2. Mutinies were organised is evident from the incident relating to protection given to captain Hearsey by his Indian subordinates during the mutiny. In this case, it was decided that the matter would be decided by a panchayat composed of native officers drawn from each regiment. It proves that the mutinies were well organised. Charles Ball has also noted that panchayats were a nightly occurrence in the Kanpur sepoy lines.

3. Discuss the extent to which religious beliefs shaped the events of 1857.
Ans: People during the company rule felt that their religious sentiments are systemically hurt by the government. For them it was an attack on their religious freedom, and an insult. The religious causes for the Revolt are as follows:

  1. Immediate cause: The soldiers were given cartridge greased with cow and pig fat. This angered Moslems and Hindus alike.
  2. Reforms by Company: The Company introduced many religious and social reformers. Many Indians began to believe that it was an attempt on the part the government to deviate them from their own religion. Important of such reforms were prevention of sati system, widow remarriage, etc.
  3. Activities of Christian Missionaries: During company rule involved in spread of education. But local people looked upon them with suspicion. Thus, the people plunged in rebellion against the foreign rule.

4. What were the measures taken to ensure unity among the rebels?
Ans: The following measures were taken to ensure unity among the rebels :

  1. The rebel proclamations in 1857 repeatedly appealed to all sections of the population, irrespective of their caste and creed. For example, the Azamgarh Proclamation of 25 August 1857 appealed to all “Hindoos and Mohammedans” to stake their lives and property for the well being of the public and take their share in the holy war against the British.
  2. Proclamations made by the Muslim princes or in their names took care to address the sentiments of Hindus.
  3. The rebellion was seen as a war in which both Hindus and Muslims had equally to lose or gain.
  4. The ishtahars harked back to the pre-British Hindu-Muslim past and glorified the coexistence of different communities under the Mughal Empire.
  5. The proclamation that was issued under the name of Bahadur Shah appealed to the people to join the fight under the standards of both Muhammad and Mahavir.
  6. British made attempts to create divisions between Hindus and Muslims. For example, in Bareily in western Uttar Pradesh, in December 1857, the British spent? 50,000 to incite Hindu population against the Muslims but they failed.

5. What steps did the British take to quell the uprising ?
Ans: In 1857 a sepoy mutiny broke out in East India that became a mass uprising in many parts of the country. The Company had faced rebellions in the past too, but not of this magnitude and extent. The British rulers realised that unless the rebellions is suppressed, their empire was destined to fizzle out.
They took swift measures to put down the flame of the rebellion, some were of military nature while others were of political nature.
The important measures taken by the British to suppress the rebellion are as follows:
1. Imposition of Marshal Law and large scale of execution: In north India where rebels were holding ground, Marshal Law was imposed. Apart from enforcing law, military officers also had the power to dispense justice and pronounce conviction and punishment. Thus, for all practical purposes, rebels and their sympathizers could be declared guilty without fair trial. The punishment was not just swift, cruel and partisan but in most cases execution. The execution was carried out in a manner that fear grips the masses. The people were blown up by canons, still others were hanged by trees. The objective was to terrorize the people and make them subservient to the might of the British empire.

2. Diplomacy: The British masters used diplomacy as tool to weaken and destroy the rebellions. They tried to win the support of native kingdoms who were not on the side of rebels, by promising them rewards and securing their kingdoms. The communities who were not involved in the mutiny, viz. Sikhs were recruited and sent to fight the rebels.

3. Use of technology: The British used technology to get an upper hand in the battle fields. Apart from having superior weapons, it was the superior communication system that routed the rebels. The company used telegram to instantly communicate with others, the rebels were totally clueless about such things.
To conclude the British strategy and technique to defeat the rebels was multi¬pronged and superior to those employed by the rebels. It was natural that the rebels crumbled in course of time.

6. Why was the revolt particularly widespread in Awadh? What prompted the! peasants, taluqdaars and zamindars to join the revolt?
Ans: (a) The revolt was widespread in Awadh due to the following reasons :

  1. Awadh was annexed by the British on the plea that the region was being misgoverned. The British thought that the Nawab was not popular but on the contrary he was very popular. People considered it as “the life has gone out of the body”. The removal led to an emotional upheaval among the people of Awadh.
  2. The annexation of Awadh led to unemployment among the musicians, dancers, poets, artisans, cooks, retainers, administrative officials and soon those who were attached with the Nawab and his household.
  3. It also led to loss of court culture.

(b) The peasants, talnqdars and zamindars joined the revolt due to the following grievances :

  1. Before the annexation, the taluqdars were very powerful but immediately after the annexation, they were disarmed and their forts destroyed. Not only under the first British revenue settlement, known as the Summary Settlement of 1856, it was assumed that they had no permanent stakes in land. Wherever possible they were removed. This led to discontentment among the taluqdars.
  2. The British had hoped that by removing the taluqdars, the condition of the peasants would improve but this did not happen. Revenue flows for the state increased but the burden of demand on the peasants did not decline. So, the peasants were too not happy with the new situation.

7. What did the rebels want? To what extent did the vision of different social group differ?
Ans: The rebels wanted to uproot the British rule. It was to be replaced by the rule of Indian, but what would be the nature of that governance is something the rebels were not sure of. They were definitely not fighting to establish a democratic government. The salient points of the vision of the rebels were as follows:
1. Hindu-Muslim Unity: The rebels were not clear about the idea of Hindu-Muslim Unity. But they were definitely cherished the ideals of Hindu-Muslim unity. The religious sentiments of both the parties were respected so much so whenever a new territory fell to rebels, cow slanghter was banned.

2. Preserving Indian Culture: Many believed that the company was pushing European culture and Christianity on the Indians. The rebels wanted to reverse this process. Some of the measures by the company to reform our society were also seen with the same vein.

The vision of the different social groups:
Zamindars: Many of them did not like the provision of auction of their estate by the company to recover losses. They considered themselves as rulers who could not be dispossessed of their estate. Hence, many of them wanted to give governance that suited their interest.
Merchants: They were a mixed lot. They liked the rule of company as it maintained peace and law across vast areas of India. However, they also looked upon the company rule as partisan that promoted British trade interest at the cost of that of Indian’s, for the end of Company rule could translate into a favourable environment.
Artisans: Most artisans were struggling to survive as they suffered due to policies of Company that pumped manufactured goods of England.

8. What do visual representations tell us about the revolt of 1857? How do historians analyse these representations?
Ans: (i) Pictorial images were produced by both British and Indians paintings, pencil drawings, posters, etc. They form an important record of the mutiny. British pictures in particular presented a variety of images that have provoked a range of different kinds of emotions and reactions.

(ii) Some of the British pictorial images commemorate the British heroes who served the English. They repressed the rebels hence represented as heroes for example, ‘Relief of Lucknow’ painted by Thomas Jones Barker, depicts the efforts of James Outrom, Henry Havelock and Colin Campbell in rescuing the besieged British garrison in Lucknow. This image was sketched in 1859.

(iii) Newspapers reported incidents of violence against women and children such kinds of news when broke out, they led to demands for revenge and retribution. The British government were asked to protect the women and children. Artists have tried to express these feelings through their visual representations of trauma and suffering.

(iv) Memories “In memoriam” painted by Joseph Noel Paton portrays helpless English women and children huddled in circle awaiting their fate at the hands of the rebels. Through it he ties to represent the rebels as violent.

(v) Portrait of heroes of rebellion the dead and injured potrait in the picture indicate the sufferings which occurred during the siege. While the triumphant figures of heroes in the middle ground emphasised the fact that British rule had been reestablished. The rebellion has been surprised.

(vi) Invincibility of British threatened by the rebellion, the British felt the need to demonstrate their invincibility. They frid to represent it through pictorial images for example, in one such image a female figure of justice with a sword in one hand a shield in the other is shown. Her posture is aggressive, her facial expression express her anger and a desire for revenge she is presented in a heroic image.

(vii) In certain sketches and paintings women are depicted as heroic. They are represented as defending themselves against the rebels. Women’s struggle to save her honour and life is shown to have a deeper religious connotation. It is a battle to save the honour of Christianity and a book lying on the floor is said to symbolize the Bible.

(viii) Source of deals with the report of a British officer from Oudh. The reports of the uprising of the people.

9. Examine any two sources presented in the chapter, choosing one visual and one text,
and discuss how these represent the point of view of the victor and vanquished.
Ans: Ordinary people join the mutiny of 1857. Lucknow was one of the main centres. The sepoys of Awadh were joined by peasants, zamindars, traders and talukdars.
Source  Sisten and the tahsildar: In the context of the communication of the message of revolt and mutiny, the experience of Francois Sisten, a native Christian police inspector in Sitapur, is telling.
He had gone to Saharanpur to pay his respects to the magistrate. Sisten was dressed in Indian clothes and sitting cross-legged. A Muslim tahsildar from Bijnor entered the room; upon learning that Sisten was from Awadh, he enquired, “What news from Awadh? How does the work progress, brother?” Playing safe, Sisten replied, “If we have work in Awadh, your highness will know it.” The tahsildar said, “Depend upon it, we will succeed this time. The direction of the business is in able hands.” The tahsildar was later identified as the principal rebel leader of Bijnor. This source indicate that the effect of the rebellions had spread even among those officers who had earlier supported the British. The English men worried about their lives, property, owner of women and children. The geographical extent of the revolt was much greater. The magistrate used to get news and daily development day to day through their governmental representatives but they were suspicious as later on magistrate of Sitapur came to know that the Sisten who came to him was a great sympathiser of the rebellions.

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CGPA Calculator | Percentage to CGPA and CGPA to Percentage Calculation


CGPA Calculator: Most of the students are not aware of how to calculate CGPA though it is mentioned in their report cards. CBSE Board gives its score in terms of CGPA. If you are feeling difficulty while understanding the concept of CGPA then this is the right place for you. Here we have explained the manual procedure on how to find the Cumulative Grade Points Average(CGPA). Have an insight into details like the definition of CGPA, Solved Examples. Get to know how to find the CGPA and Percentage from the CGPA Grades.

What is CGPA?

CGPA stands for Cumulative Grade Points Average. CGPA is nothing but the average of grade points obtained by students in all the subjects excluding the 6th subject. If you want to know how much percentage you have secured in your board exams you need to convert from CGPA to Percentage.

How to Calculate CGPA?

Follow the simple and easy guidelines on how to calculate the CGPA manually and find the Cumulative Grade Points Average instantly. They are along the lines

  • Add the Grade Points of the 5 main subjects given.
  • Divide the resultant sum obtained with 5
  • The resultant is the Cumulative Grade Points Average.


Calculate the Cumulative Grade Points Average is the CGPA Grades of Subjects are given as 9, 8, 7, 8, 8?


Given Subject Grades are 9, 8, 7, 8, 8

To find CGPA add the grades = 9+8+7+8+8

Sum = 40

Divide the sum with 5 to get the CGPA

CGPA = 40/5

CGPA = 8

Therefore, the Cumulative Grade Points Average of subjects 9, 8, 7, 8, 8 is 8

CGPA to Percentage

It is important to know the CGPA in Percentages to know how much you have secured. Know how to convert CGPA to Percentage by referring below.

To change CGPA to Percentage all you need to do is simply multiply the CGPS Score obtained with 9.5

FAQs on CGPA(Cumulative Grade Points Average)

1. What is meant by CGPA?

CGPA stands for Cumulative Grade Points Average and is the average of grade points obtained by students excluding additional subjects.

2. What is the Full Form of CGPA?

CGPA Stands for Cumulative Grade Points Average.

3. How to Calculate CGPA?

You can calculate CGPA by adding the grade points of main subjects and excluding additional subjects. Divide the sum obtained with 5 and then you get the CGPA.

4. How to find Percentage using CGPA?

You just need to multiply the CGPA Score obtained with 9.5 to get the Percentage.


We hope the knowledge shared on our page regarding the CGPA Calculator has shed some light on you. If you have any queries and feel any information is missing feel free to ask us and we will get back to you. Stay tuned to our site for the latest updates on CGPA Calculator in no time.





The post CGPA Calculator | Percentage to CGPA and CGPA to Percentage Calculation appeared first on Learn CBSE.

Class 11 History NCERT Solutions Free PDF Download | NCERT Solutions for 11th Class History PDF


History is an essential subject and is all about studying past events. The subject includes various dates to memorize and needs proper study material. While preparing for the history exam it is necessary to prepare from Proper Textbooks. We have listed the Class 11 History NCERT Solutions to ace up your preparation. Make the most out of them and enhance your subject knowledge and clear all your queries. Download the 11th Class History NCERT Solutions PDF through the quick links available.

NCERT Solutions of Class 11th History PDF Free Download

The Solutions provided for Class 11 History are prepared by subject experts who have deep knowledge of the subject. To help students we have provided the NCERT Solutions of Class 11 History in PDF Format. Access the Chapterwise NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History through quick links available. Have a strong conceptual knowledge by taking the help of the Detailed Solutions.

Class 11 History NCERT Solutions Themes in World History

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History

Why you should study 11th Std History NCERT Solutions?

Here is a list of reasons why you should refer to the Class 11 History NCERT Solutions. They are as below

  • Grasp the concepts covered in NCERT Textbooks by referring to the NCERT Solutions PDF.
  • You can access the NCERT Solutions provided free of cost.
  • Enhance your subject knowledge and identify your strengths and weaknesses.
  • 11th Grade NCERT Solutions for History are given in a clear and lucid manner making it easy for you to learn the concepts.
  • You can rely on the Step by Step Solutions provided as all of them are given by experts after ample research.

FAQs on History Class 11 NCERT Solutions PDF

1. Where do I get detailed NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History?

You can get detailed NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History on our page.

2. How to score max. marks in Class 11 History Board Exams?

Practice using the NCERT Solutions of Class 11 History on a regular basis and get a good grip on the concepts. Thus, you can attempt the exam with confidence and score well in the exam.

3. How to download 11th Grade History NCERT Solutions PDF?

All you need to do is simply tap on the quick links available for Class 11 History NCERT Solutions. You will be directed to a new page having the download option on which you can click on and save it for future reference.

4. Where do I find Chapterwise Class 11th NCERT Solutions of History?

You can find Chapterwise Class 11 History NCERT Solutions on our portal LearnCBSE.in a trusted portal for all NCERT Solutions.


Hope the information prevailing on Class 11 History NCERT Solutions has been useful to you in clearing your queries. If you need any help feel free to reach us via the comment section and we will get back to you at the earliest. Bookmark our site for more updates on NCERT Solutions in a short span of time.

The post Class 11 History NCERT Solutions Free PDF Download | NCERT Solutions for 11th Class History PDF appeared first on Learn CBSE.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit | Download 12th Class Sanskrit NCERT Solutions PDF


Don’t you have a hardcopy of the Sanskrit Textbook and worried about how to learn it. Don’t worry as we have curated the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit in a simple and easy to understand language. You can rely on the Class 12 NCERT Solutions for Sanskrit provided here as they are given to you after ample research. Make the most out of the NCERT Solutions prevailing as per the latest CBSE Guidelines and score high in your board exams. Download the Sanskrit 12th Class NCERT Solutions PDF free of cost through the quick links available.

Chapterwise NCERT Solutions for Class 12th Sanskrit

Take the help of the Chapterwise NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Sanskrit and ace up your preparation. Enhance Subject Knowledge on Sanskrit through the detailed solutions provided. All the Solutions are provided in a clear manner so that students can understand them quickly and clarify their doubts. Simply click on the quick links available below and prepare the concepts underlying accordingly.

खण्डः क

खण्डः ख – संस्कृतेन रचनात्मकं लिखितकार्यम्

खण्डः ग

खण्डः घ
भाग I – पठितांश-अवबोधनम्

भाग II – सामान्यः संस्कृतसाहित्यपरिचयः

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit

CBSE Class 12 Sanskrit Syllabus

संस्कृतम् कक्षा – 12
पूर्णाङ्काः 100
एकम् प्रश्नपत्रम्

अस्मिन् प्रश्नपत्रे चत्वारःः खण्डाः भविष्यन्ति
खण्डः “क” अपठितांश-अवबोधनम् (10)
खण्डः “ख” रचनात्मककार्यम् (15)
खण्डः “ग” अनुप्रयुक्तव्याकरणम् (30)
खण्डः “घ” (45)
(अ) पठित-अवबोधनम् (35)
(ब) संस्कृतसाहित्येतिहास्य परिचयः (10)

प्रतिखण्डं विस्तृतविवरणम्
खण्डः ‘क’ – (अपठितांशअवबोधनम्)

80-100 शब्दपरिमितः एक सरलः अपठितः गद्यांशः। प्रश्नवैविध्यम् (अङ्काः – 10, कालांशः – 21)
(i) एकपदेन उत्तरम्
(ii) पूर्णवाक्येन उत्तरम्
(iii) सर्वनामस्थाने संज्ञाप्रयोगः
(iv) कर्तृक्रिया-पदचयनम्
(v) विशेषण-विशेष्य/पर्याय/विलोमादिचयनम्
(vi) समुचितशीर्षकप्रदानम्

खण्डः ‘ख’
(संस्कृतेन रचनात्मकं लिखितकार्यम्) (अङ्काः – 15, कालांशः – 32)

1. अनौपचारिकं पत्रम्/प्रार्थनापत्रम्
2. लघुकथा (शब्दसूचीसाहाय्येन, रिक्तस्थानपूर्ति-माध्यमेन)
3. संकेताधारितम् अनुच्छेदलेखनम् (चित्रमधिकृत्य, निर्दिष्टशब्दसूची-साहाय्येन)

खण्डः ‘ग’
(अनुप्रयुक्तव्याकरणम्) (अङ्काः – 30, कालांशः – 63)

(i) पाठाधारिताः सन्धिच्छेदाः (2 + 2 + 2 = 6)
स्वरसन्धिः, व्यंजनसन्धिः, विसर्गसन्धिः
(ii) पाठाधारितसमस्तपदानां विग्रहा: (6)
अव्ययीभावः, द्विगुः, द्वन्द्वः, तत्पुरुषः, कर्मधारयः, बहुव्रीहिः
(iii) प्रत्ययाः
अधोलिखितप्रत्यययोगेन वाक्यसंयोजनम्/सङ्केताधारितरिक्तस्थानपूर्तिः
(अ) कृत् – क्त, क्तवतु, क्त्वा, तुमुन्, ल्यप्, तव्यत्, अनीयर्, क्तिन्, शतृ, शान। (5)
(आ) तद्धित — मतुप्, इन्, ठक्, ठञ्, त्व, तल्। (3)
(iv) अन्वितिः (5)
(v) उपपदविभक्तिप्रयोगः (पाठ्यपुस्तकम् आधृत्य) (5)

खण्डः ‘घ’
भागः I – (पठितांश-अवबोधनम् ) (अङ्काः – 45, कालांशः – 94)

(अ) अंशत्रयम् (15)
(i) एकः गद्यांशः (5)
(ii) एकः नाट्यांशः (5)
(iii) एकः पद्यांश: (5)
(i) एकपदेन उत्तरम् (1)
(ii) पूर्णवाक्येन उत्तरम् (1)
(iii) विशेषण-विशेष्य-अन्विति:/पर्याय/विलोमचयनम् (1)
(iv) सर्वनामस्थाने संज्ञाप्रयोगः (1)
(v) कर्तृ-क्रिया-पदचयनम् (1)
(आ) (i) उद्धृतांशानम् प्रसङ्गसन्दर्भलेखनम् कः कम् कथयति/सन्दर्भग्रन्थस्य लेखकस्य च नामोल्लेखनम् (4)
(ii) प्रदत्ते भावार्थेत्रये शुद्धभावार्थचयनम्/ प्रदत्ते भावार्थे रिक्तस्थानपूर्तिः (4)
(iii) उद्धृतश्लोकानाम् अन्वयेषु रिक्तस्थानपूर्तिः (4)
(iv) प्रदत्तवाक्यानां क्रमयोजनम् (4)
(v) प्रदत्तपंक्तिषु प्रसङ्गानुसारं श्लिष्टपदानाम्/पदानाम् अर्थलेखनम् (4)

भागः II – (सामान्यः संस्कृतसाहित्यपरिचयः) (10)
1. (अ) पाठ्यपुस्तके संकलितपाठ्यांशानां कवीनां कृतीनां संस्कृतेन परिचयः (1 × 5 = 5)
(आ) संस्कृते गद्य-पद्य-नाटकादिविधानां मुख्यविशेषतानां परिचयः (5)

Benefits of 12th Class NCERT Solutions on Sanskrit

Go through the advantages of referring to Class 12th NCERT Solutions on Sanskrit from the below sections. They are along the lines

  • Students can learn all the concepts in a simple and easy to understand language.
  • All the Solutions provided are available for download and you can access them free of cost.
  • Lay a stronger foundation of basics by solving the NCERT Solutions provided.
  • Detailed Solutions provided are given by subject experts and as per the latest syllabus guidelines.

FAQs on Class 12 Sanskrit NCERT Solutions

1. How to download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit?

You can download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit by simply tapping on the quick links available. Once you click on them you will be directed to a new page having the download option. Tap on that and save it for future reference.

2. From where students can get detailed NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit?

Students can get detailed NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit on our page.

3. How to study 12th Grade Sanskrit Concepts easily?

Take the help of NCERT Solutions for 12th Grade Sanskrit to prepare the concepts of Sanskrit easily.

Final words

We wish the data shed above regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit has been beneficial to an extent. If you have any other queries feel free to reach us and we will get back to you at the earliest possibility. Bookmark our site for the latest updates on NCERT Solutions of various classes at your fingertips.

The post NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sanskrit | Download 12th Class Sanskrit NCERT Solutions PDF appeared first on Learn CBSE.

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions PDF | Download Chapterwise 12th Std Geography NCERT Solutions


NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Geography are provided to help students find the answers to questions they feel difficult. We have listed the 12th Std Geography NCERT Solutions PDF in simple and easy to understand language. Refer to these Solutions while preparing for the board exams and clear the exams with flying colors. Download the Class 12th Geography NCERT Solutions PDF through the direct links available and prepare from anywhere and anytime.

12th Class Geography NCERT Solutions PDF Free Download

Students can have strong fundamentals of Geography by availing the quick links prevailing. Simply click on the chapter you want to prepare and get the related concepts easily. Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions provided gives solved answers to all the questions in the Textbooks. If you are facing difficulty at any point you can make use of the NCERT Solutions over here to clear your doubts.

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions: Fundamentals of Human Geography

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: Fundamentals of Human Geography

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions: India People and Economy

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: India People and Economy

Practical Work in Geography Class 12 Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: Practical Work in Geography

Advantages of 12th Std Geography NCERT Solutions

Go through the benefits of referring to the NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Geography. They are as under

  • Grasping the concepts of Geography becomes quite easy with the NCERT Textbook Solutions.
  • You can download the NCERT Solutions PDF free of cost through the quick links.
  • Detailed solutions given helps you learn the concepts effectively.
  • Make use of well-structured solutions to enhance your subject knowledge.

FAQs on Geography Class 12 NCERT Solutions

1. Where can I find the Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions PDF?

You can find the Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions PDF through the quick links available on our page.

2. How to download 12th Grade Geography NCERT Solutions?

Just click on the quick links available for 12th Class NCERT Solutions of Geography and you will be directed to a new page having the download option. Tap on that and save for future usage.

3. Which website offers the best NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Geography?

LearnCBSE.in offers the best NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Geography and you can use them as a reference as all of them are given after extensive research by experts.

4. Where do I get Chapterwise NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Geography?

You can get Chapterwise NCERT Solutions for 12th Class Geography on our page.

Final Words

Hope the information shared on our page regarding the Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions has shed some light on you. If you have any other queries don’t hesitate and leave us a comment so that we will get back to you with a possible solution. Stay in touch with our site to avail the latest updates on NCERT Solutions of different classes in no time.

The post Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions PDF | Download Chapterwise 12th Std Geography NCERT Solutions appeared first on Learn CBSE.

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Download Class 11 Geography NCERT Solutions | 11th Class Geography NCERT Solutions PDF


If you are looking for help on Class 11 Geography Concepts you have come the right way. Refer to the Class 11 Geography NCERT Solutions and take your preparation to next level. Clarify your queries during preparation and assess your preparation level by practicing from the NCERT Solutions on a regular basis. Access the quick links available below for 11th Std Chapterwise Geography NCERT Solutions and download them for free of cost.

Chapterwise 11th Class Geography NCERT Solutions PDF

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography are prepared adhering to the latest Exam Pattern and CBSE Guidelines. You can use them for quick revision and get a good hold of the concepts. 11th Std NCERT Solutions on geography provides a deeper insight into the concepts and helps you score well in the board exams. Get to know the Chapterwise Class 11th Geography NCERT Solutions through the direct links available.

NCERT Class 11 Fundamentals of Physical Geography Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography

NCERT Class 11 India Physical Environment Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography: India Physical Environment

Practical Work in Geography Class 11 Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography: Practical Work in Geography

Importance of Class 11 NCERT Solutions for Geography

Here are some of the advantages of referring to NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography. They are in the following fashion

  • Improve your subject knowledge and problem-solving skills by practicing from NCERT Solutions.
  • You can learn properly the concepts without any hassle by making use of these Solutions.
  • Step by Step Solutions provided helps you have a deeper insight into concepts.
  • Access the quick links and download the detailed solutions for free of cost to ace up your preparation.
  • All the Solutions are given in simple and easy to understand language.

FAQs on NCERT Solutions for 11th Grade Geography

1. Where do I find NCERT Solutions for Class 11th Geography?

You can find NCERT Solutions for Class 11th Geography in detail on our page.

2. How to download 11th Class Geography NCERT Solutions PDF?

You just need to click on the quick links available to download them for 11th Class Geography NCERT Solutions.

3. Where do I get Chapterwise Class 11 NCERT Solutions on Geography?

You can get Chapterwise Class 11 NCERT Solutions on Geography on our page.


We believe the information shared as far as our knowledge is concerned has been true to our knowledge. In case of any other queries do leave is your requests by commenting from the comment box. We will look it into them and solve them as soon as possible. Stay tuned to our site LearnCBSE.in for the latest updates on NCERT Solutions in a matter of seconds.

The post Download Class 11 Geography NCERT Solutions | 11th Class Geography NCERT Solutions PDF appeared first on Learn CBSE.